Friday, September 1, 2017

The Fate of Empires by Sir John Glubb


Dedicated analysts often ask for reading recommendations.  My emphasis in reading is to focus on human nature to better equip them for discerning lies and predicting not only criminal action, but answers in the interview or interrogation.  


An analyst recently recommended this work by Sir John Glubb. 

 It is a view of history that has been expressed by others, as well, but here he touches upon human nature in a way that is specifically useful for analysts and truth seekers. 

The greater our understanding of human nature, the more accurate we are in deception detection and psycho-linguistic profiling.  

Although we may consider portions we disagree with, especially regarding some conclusions,  or areas in which a change of language might bring clarity, the absurdity we see today, propagated first by politicians, is the new religion of our day.  What I find most valuable is his observations and how they apply to this ideology that has swept the West.  It is with the zealotry of religious fanaticism that we see the "ancient landmarks" of truth, honor, respect and self sacrifice swept away in a pragmatic justification for this religion of madness.  

It has its saints and sinners, its morals and its sins, and its zealotry is now leading to violence.  Its end is self destruction. 

This may help some understand why "up is down" and why we, as society, do things that harm us, in the name of "morality" or "ethics" because we reject truth, and think ourselves as the highest authority.  

Is "multiculturalism" new?

Is "diversity is our strength" really true?

Why are the morals and ethics of yesterday suddenly  the immoral and unethical of today?

Why does wisdom repeatedly insist on learning from those who are older and have experience?

Why is the truth of history, with all of its honors and its failures, invaluable to us today?

What is it about mankind that is so self destructive?

What is happening in Islamic migration?

Why do Islamists talk about the "golden age" of a caliphate and what is its relevancy for us today?

Why are monuments of history being torn down violently today?

Why is history being revised and rewritten?

Why do we see generational decline?

Why do critics dismiss generational decline?

Why is generational decline mocked, one generation to the next, through minimization and dismissal? 

Why do we fail to ask questions?

Why are we silencing free speech?

Why are some words forbidden us?

Why do I feel uncomfortable using certain words?

Am I offended by some of his observations?

If so, why?

How does it impact my thinking?  

Can I identify the emotion and isolate it?

How is this impacting me and my view of the world about me?

Can I see past my own time and culture to get to truth?


                  Why do we not learn from history?

Glubb offers some answers.  

If truth is your goal, it is worth your investment of time. 

Peter Hyatt 


THE FATE OF EMPIRES and  SEARCH FOR SURVIVAL
by Sir John Glubb

John Bagot Glubb was born in 1897, his father being a regular officer in the Royal Engineers.
At the age of four he left England for Mauritius, where his father was posted for a three-year tour of duty. At the age of ten he was sent to school for a year in Switzerland. These youthful

travels may have opened his mind to the outside world at an early age.
He entered the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich in September
1914, and was
commissioned in the Royal Engineers in April 1915. He served throughout the first World War in France and Belgium, being wounded three times and awarded the Military Cross. In 1920 he volunteered for service in Iraq, as a regular officer, but in 1926 resigned his commission and accepted an administrative post under the Iraq Government.

In 1930, however, he signed a contract to serve the Transjordan Government (now Jordan). From 1939 to 1956 he commanded the famous Jordan Arab Legion, which was in reality the Jordan Army. Since his retirement he has published seventeen books, chiefly on the Middle East, and has lectured widely in Britain, the United States and Europe.
William Blackwood & Sons Ltd 32 Thistle Street
Edinburgh EH
1 1HA
Scotland



As we pass through life, we learn by experience. We look back on our behaviour when we were young and think how foolish we were. In the same way our family, our community and our town endeavour to avoid the mistakes made by our predecessors.
The experiences of the human race have been recorded, in more or less detail, for some four thousand years. If we attempt to study such a period of time in as many countries as possible, we seem to discover the same patterns constantly repeated under widely differing conditions of climate, culture and religion. Surely, we ask ourselves, if we studied calmly and impartially the history of human institutions and development over these four thousand years, should we not reach conclusions which would assist to solve our problems today? For everything that is occurring around us has happened again and again before.

No such conception ever appears to have entered into the minds of our historians. In general, historical teaching in schools is
limited to this small island. We endlessly mull over the Tudors and the Stewarts, the Battle of Crecy, and Guy Fawkes. Perhaps this narrowness is due to our examination system, which necessitates the careful definition of a syllabus which all children must observe.
I remember once visiting a school for mentally handicapped children. “Our children do not have to take examinations," the headmaster told me,” and so we are able to teach them things which will be really useful to them in life."

However this may be, the thesis which I wish to propound is that priceless lessons could be learned if the history of the past four thousand years could be thoroughly and impartially studied. In these two articles, which first appeared in Blackwood’s Magazine, I have attempted briefly to sketch some of the kinds of lessons which I believe we could learn. My plea is that history should be the history of the human race, not of one small country or period.

Introduction

I Learning from history

‘The only thing we learn from history,’ it

has been said, ‘is that men never learn from history’, a sweeping generalisation perhaps, but one which the chaos in the world today goes far to confirm. What then can be the reason why, in a society which claims to probe every problem, the bases of history are still so completely unknown?

Several reasons for the futility of our historical studies may be suggested.
First, our historical work is limited to short periods—the history of our own country, or that of some past age which, for some reason, we hold in respect.
Second, even within these short periods, the slant we give to our narrative is governed by our own vanity rather than by objectivity. If we are considering the history of our own country, we write at length of the periods when our ancestors were prosperous and victorious, but we pass quickly over their shortcomings or their defeats. Our people are represented as patriotic heroes, their enemies as grasping imperialists, or subversive rebels. In other words, our national histories are propaganda, not well- balanced investigations.

Third, in the sphere of world history, we study certain short, usually unconnected, periods, which fashion at certain epochs has made popular. Greece 500 years before Christ, and the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire are cases in point. 

The intervals between the ‘great periods’ are neglected. Recently Greece and Rome have become largely discredited, and history tends to become increasingly the parochial history of our own countries.
To derive any useful instruction from history, it seems to me essential first of all to grasp the principle that history, to be meaningful, must be the history of the human race. For history is a continuous process, gradually developing, changing and turning back, but in general moving forward in a single mighty stream. Any useful lessons to be derived must be learned by the study of the whole flow of human development, not by the selection of short periods here and there in one country or another.
Every age and culture is derived from its predecessors, adds some contribution of its own, and passes it on to its successors. If we boycott various periods of history, the origins of the new cultures which succeeded them cannot be explained.


Physical science has expanded its knowledge by building on the work of its predecessors, and by making millions of careful experi- ments, the results of which are meticulously recorded. Such methods have not yet been employed in the study of world history. Our piecemeal historical work is still mainly dominated by emotion and prejudice.

II The lives of empires

If we desire to ascertain the laws which

govern the rise and fall of empires, the obvious course is to investigate the imperial experiments recorded in history, and to
endeavour to deduce from them any lessons which seem to be applicable to them all.
The word ‘empire’, by association with the British Empire, is visualised by some people as an organisation consisting of a home- country in Europe and ‘colonies’ in other continents. In this essay, the term ‘empire’ is used to signify a great power, often called today a superpower. Most of the empires in history have been large landblocks, almost without overseas possessions.
We possess a considerable amount of information on many empires recorded in history, and of their vicissitudes and the lengths of their lives, for example:
page4image13120
The nation
Assyria
Persia
(Cyrus and his descendants) Greece
(Alexander and his successors) Roman Republic
Roman Empire
Arab Empire
Mameluke Empire
Ottoman Empire
Spain
Romanov Russia
Britain
Dates of rise and fall
859-612 B.C. 538-330 B.C.
331-100 B.C.
260-27 B.C. 27 B.C.-A.D. 180 A.D. 634-880 1250-1517 1320-1570 1500-1750 1682-1916 1700-1950
Duration in years
247 208
231
233 207 246 267 250 250 234 250
This list calls for certain comments.

(1) The present writer is exploring the facts, not trying to prove anything. The dates given are largely arbitrary. Empires do not usually begin or end on a certain date. There is
normally a gradual period of expansion and then a period of decline. The resemblance in the duration of these great powers may be queried. Human affairs are subject to many chances, and it is not to be expected that they
could be calculated with mathematical accuracy.

(2) Nevertheless, it is suggested that there is sufficient resemblance between the life periods of these different empires to justify further study.


(3) The division of Rome into two periods may be thought unwarranted. The first, or republican, period dates from the time when Rome became the mistress of Italy, and ends with the accession of Augustus. The imperial period extends from the accession of Augustus to the death of Marcus Aurelius. It is true that the empire survived nominally for more than a century after this date, but it did so in constant confusion, rebellions, civil wars and barbarian invasions.

(4) Not all empires endured for their full life- span. The Babylonian Empire of Nebucha- dnezzar, for example, was overthrown by Cyrus, after a life duration of only some seventy-four years.

(5) An interesting deduction from the figures seems to be that the duration of empires does not depend on the speed of travel or the nature of weapons. The Assyrians marched on foot and fought with spears and bow and arrows. The British used artillery, railways and ocean-going ships. Yet the two empires lasted for approximately the same periods.

There is a tendency nowadays to say that this is the jet-age, and consequently there is nothing for us to learn from past empires. Such an attitude seems to be erroneous.

(6) It is tempting to compare the lives of empires with those of human beings. We may choose a figure and say that the average life of a human being is seventy years. Not all human beings live exactly seventy years. Some die in infancy, others are killed in accidents in middle life, some survive to the
age of eighty or ninety. Nevertheless, in spite of such exceptions, we are justified in saying that seventy years is a fair estimate of the average person’s expectation of life.

(7) We may perhaps at this stage be allowed to draw certain conclusions:
(a) In spite of the accidents of fortune, and the apparent circumstances of the human race at different epochs, the periods of duration of different empires at varied epochs show a remarkable similarity.
(b) Immense changes in the technology of transport or in methods of warfare do not seem to affect the life-expectation of an empire.
(c) The changes in the technology of trans- port and of war have, however, affected the shape of empires. The Assyrians, marching on foot, could only conquer their neigh- bours, who were accessible by land—the Medes, the Babylonians, the Persians and the Egyptians.

The British, making use of ocean-going ships, conquered many countries and sub- continents, which were accessible to them by water—North America, India, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand—but they never succeeded in conquering their neighbours, France, Germany and Spain.
But, although the shapes of the Assyrian and the British Empires were entirely different, both lasted about the same length of time.

III The human yardstick
What then, we may ask, can have been the

factor which caused such an extraordinary similarity in the duration of empires, under such diverse conditions, and such utterly different technological achievements?

The Fate of Empires 3
4 The Fate of Empires

One of the very few units of measurement which have not seriously changed since the Assyrians is the human ‘generation’, a period of about twenty-five years. Thus a period of 250 years would represent about ten gene- rations of people. A closer examination of the characteristics of the rise and fall of great nations may emphasise the possible signifi- cance of the sequence of generations.
Let us then attempt to examine the stages in the lives of such powerful nations.

IV Stage one. The outburst

Again and again in history we find a small

nation, treated as insignificant by its contemporaries, suddenly emerging from its homeland and overrunning large areas of the world. Prior to Philip (359-336 B.C.), Mace- don had been an insignificant state to the north of Greece. Persia was the great power of the time, completely dominating the area from Eastern Europe to India. Yet by 323 B.C., thirty-six years after the accession of Philip, the Persian Empire had ceased to exist, and the Macedonian Empire extended from the Danube to India, including Egypt.

This amazing expansion may perhaps he attributed to the genius of Alexander the Great, but this cannot have been the sole reason; for although after his death every- thing went wrong—the Macedonian generals fought one another and established rival empires—Macedonian pre-eminence survi- ved for 231 years.
In the year A.D. 600, the world was divided between two superpower groups as it has been for the past fifty years between Soviet Russia and the West. The two powers were the eastern Roman Empire and the Persian Empire. The Arabs were then the despised and backward inhabitants of the Arabian
Peninsula. They consisted chiefly of wan- dering tribes, and had no government, no constitution and no army. Syria, Palestine, Egypt and North Africa were Roman provinces, Iraq was part of Persia.
The Prophet Mohammed preached in Arabia from A.D. 613 to 632, when he died. In 633, the Arabs burst out of their desert peninsula, and simultaneously attacked the two super-powers. Within twenty years, the Persian Empire had ceased to exist. Seventy years after the death of the Prophet, the Arabs had established an empire extending from the Atlantic to the plains of Northern India and the frontiers of China.

At the beginning of the thirteenth century, the Mongols were a group of savage tribes in the steppes of Mongolia. In 1211, Genghis Khan invaded China. By 1253, the Mongols had established an empire extending from Asia Minor to the China Sea, one of the largest empires the world has ever known.
The Arabs ruled the greater part of Spain for 780 years, from 712 A.D. to 1492. (780 years back in British history would take us to 1196 and King Richard Cœur de Lion.) During these eight centuries, there had been no Spanish nation, the petty kings of Aragon and Castile alone holding on in the mountains.
The agreement between Ferdinand and Isabella and Christopher Columbus was signed immediately after the fall of Granada, the last Arab kingdom in Spain, in 1492. Within fifty years, Cortez had conquered Mexico, and Spain was the world’s greatest empire.
Examples of the sudden outbursts by which empires are born could be multiplied indefinitely. These random illustrations must suffice.
V Characteristics of the outburst
These sudden outbursts are usually characterised by an extraordinary display of energy and courage. The new conquerors are normally poor, hardy and enterprising and above all aggressive. The decaying empires which they overthrow are wealthy but defensive-minded. In the time of Roman greatness, the legions used to dig a ditch round their camps at night to avoid surprise. But the ditches were mere earthworks, and between them wide spaces were left through which the Romans could counter-attack. But as Rome grew older, the earthworks became high walls, through which access was given only by narrow gates. Counterattacks were no longer possible. The legions were now

passive defenders.
But the new nation is not only distingui-

shed by victory in battle, but by unresting enterprise in every field. Men hack their way through jungles, climb mountains, or brave the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans in tiny cockle-shells. The Arabs crossed the Straits of Gibraltar in A.D. 711 with 12,000 men, defeated a Gothic army of more than twice their strength, marched straight over 250 miles of unknown enemy territory and seized the Gothic capital of Toledo. At the same stage in British history, Captain Cook disco- vered Australia. Fearless initiative characte- rises such periods.
Other peculiarities of the period of the conquering pioneers are their readiness to improvise and experiment. Untrammelled by traditions, they will turn anything available to their purpose. If one method fails, they try something else. Uninhibited by textbooks or book learning, action is their solution to every problem.
Poor, hardy, often half-starved and ill-clad, they abound in courage, energy and initiative, overcome every obstacle and always seem to be in control of the situation.
VI The causes of race outbursts
The modern instinct is to seek a reason for

everything, and to doubt the veracity of a statement for which a reason cannot be found. So many examples can be given of the sudden eruption of an obscure race into a nation of conquerors that the truth of the phenomenon cannot be held to be doubtful. To assign a cause is more difficult. Perhaps the easiest explanation is to assume that the poor and obscure race is tempted by the wealth of the ancient civilisation, and there would undoubtedly appear to be an element of greed for loot in barbarian invasions.
Such a motivation may be divided into two classes. The first is mere loot, plunder and rape, as, for example, in the case of Attila and the Huns, who ravaged a great part of Europe from A.D. 450 to 453. However, when Attila died in the latter year, his empire fell apart and his tribes returned to Eastern Europe.
Many of the barbarians who founded dynasties in Western Europe on the ruins of the Roman Empire, however, did so out of admiration for Roman civilisation, and themselves aspired to become Romans.
VII A providential turnover?
Whatever causes may be given for the

overthrow of great civilisations by barbarians, we can sense certain resulting benefits. Every race on earth has distinctive characteristics. Some have been distingui- shed in philosophy, some in administration, some in romance, poetry or religion, some in
The Fate of Empires 5
6 The Fate of Empires
their legal system. During the pre-eminence of each culture, its distinctive characteristics are carried by it far and wide across the world.
If the same nation were to retain its domination indefinitely, its peculiar qualities would permanently characterise the whole human race. Under the system of empires each lasting for 250 years, the sovereign race has time to spread its particular virtues far and wide. Then, however, another people, with entirely different peculiarities, takes its place, and its virtues and accomplishments are likewise disseminated. By this system, each of the innumerable races of the world enjoys a period of greatness, during which its peculiar qualities are placed at the service of mankind.
To those who believe in the existence of God, as the Ruler and Director of human affairs, such a system may appear as a manifestation of divine wisdom, tending towards the slow and ultimate perfection of humanity.

VIII The course of empire

The first stage of the life of a great nation,

therefore, after its outburst, is a period of amazing initiative, and almost incredible enterprise, courage and hardihood. These qualities, often in a very short time, produce a new and formidable nation. These early victories, however, are won chiefly by reckless bravery and daring initiative.

The ancient civilisation thus attacked will have defended itself by its sophisticated weapons, and by its military organisation and discipline. The barbarians quickly appreciate the advantages of these military methods and adopt them. As a result, the second stage of expansion of the new empire
consists of more organised, disciplined and professional campaigns.
In other fields, the daring initiative of the original conquerors is maintained—in geographical exploration, for example: pioneering new countries, penetrating new forests, climbing unexplored mountains, and sailing uncharted seas. The new nation is confident, optimistic and perhaps contemp- tuous of the ‘decadent’ races which it has subjugated.

The methods employed tend to be practical and experimental, both in government and in warfare, for they are not tied by centuries of tradition, as happens in ancient empires. Moreover, the leaders are free to use their own improvisations, not having studied politics or tactics in schools or in textbooks.

IX U.S.A. in the stage of the pioneers
In the case of the United States of America, the pioneering period did not consist of a barbarian conquest of an effete civilisation, but of the conquest of barbarian peoples. Thus, viewed from the outside, every example seems to be different. But viewed from the standpoint of the great nation,

every example seems to be similar.

The United States arose suddenly as a new nation, and its period of pioneering was spent in the conquest of a vast continent, not an ancient empire. Yet the subsequent life history of the United States has followed the standard pattern which we shall attempt to trace—the periods of the pioneers, of commerce, of affluence, of intellectualism

and of decadence.
X Commercial expansion
The conquest of vast areas of land and

their subjection to one government
automatically acts as a stimulant to com- merce. Both merchants and goods can be exchanged over considerable distances. Moreover, if the empire be an extensive one, it will include a great variety of climates, producing extremely varied products, which the different areas will wish to exchange with one another.
The speed of modern methods of trans- portation tends to create in us the impress- sion that far-flung commerce is a modern development, but this is not the case. Objects made in Ireland, Scandinavia and China have been found in the graves or the ruins of the Middle East, dating from 1,000 years before Christ. The means of transport were slower, but, when a great empire was in control, commerce was freed from the innumerable shackles imposed upon it today by passports, import permits, customs, boycotts and political interference.
The Roman Empire extended from Britain to Syria and Egypt, a distance, in a direct line, of perhaps 2,700 miles. A Roman official, transferred from Britain to Syria, might spend six months on the journey. Yet, throughout the whole distance, he would be travelling in the same country, with the same official language, the same laws, the same currency and the same administrative system. Today, some twenty independent countries separate Britain from Syria, each with its own government, its own laws, politics, customs fees, passports and currencies, making commercial co-operation almost impossible. And this process of disintegration is still continuing. Even within the small areas of the modern European nations, provincial movements demanding secession or devolution tend further to splinter the continent.

The present fashion for ‘independence’ has produced great numbers of tiny states in the world, some of them consisting of only one city or of a small island. This system is an insuperable obstacle to trade and co- operation. The present European Economic Community is an attempt to secure commer- cial cooperation among small independent states over a large area, but the plan meets with many difficulties, due to the mutual jealousies of so many nations.
Even savage and militaristic empires promoted commerce, whether or not they intended to do so. The Mongols were some of the most brutal military conquerors in history, massacring the entire populations of cities. Yet, in the thirteenth century, when their empire extended from Peking to Hungary, the caravan trade between China and Europe achieved a remarkable degree of prosperity—the whole journey was in the territory of one government.
In the eighth and ninth centuries, the caliphs of Baghdad achieved fabulous wealth owing to the immense extent of their territories, which constituted a single trade bloc. The empire of the caliphs is now divided into some twenty-five separate ‘nations’.

XI The pros and cons of empires

In discussing the life-story of the typical empire, we have digressed into a discussion of whether empires are useful or injurious to mankind. We seem to have discovered that empires have certain advantages, particu- larly in the field of commerce, and in the establishment of peace and security in vast areas of the globe. Perhaps we should also include the spread of varied cultures to many races. The present infatuation for indepen-
The Fate of Empires 7

8 The Fate of Empires
dence for ever smaller and smaller units will eventually doubtless be succeeded by new international empires.

The present attempts to create a European community may be regarded as a practical endeavour to constitute a new super-power, in spite of the fragmentation resulting from the craze for independence. If it succeeds, some of the local independencies will have to be sacrificed. If it fails, the same result may be attained by military conquest, or by the partition of Europe between rival super- powers. The inescapable conclusion seems, however, to be that larger territorial units are a benefit to commerce and to public stability, whether the broader territory be achieved by voluntary association or by military action.

XII Sea power
One of the more benevolent ways in which

a super-power can promote both peace and commerce is by its command of the sea.

From Waterloo to 1914, the British Navy commanded the seas of the world. Britain grew rich, but she also made the Seas safe for the commerce of all nations, and prevented major wars for 100 years.
Curiously enough, the question of sea power was never clearly distinguished, in British politics during the last fifty years, from the question of imperial rule over other countries. In fact, the two subjects are entirely distinct. Sea power does not offend small countries, as does military occupation. If Britain had maintained her navy, with a few naval bases overseas in isolated islands, and had given independence to colonies which asked for it, the world might well be a more stable place today. In fact, however, the navy was swept away in the popular outcry against imperialism.

XIII The Age of Commerce


Let us now, however, return to the life-

story of our typical empire. We have already considered the age of outburst, when a little- regarded people suddenly bursts on to the world stage with a wild courage and energy. Let us call it the Age of the Pioneers.

Then we saw that these new conquerors acquired the sophisticated weapons of the old empires, and adopted their regular systems of military organisation and training. A great period of military expansion ensued, which we may call the Age of Conquests. The conquests resulted in the acquisition of vast territories under one government, thereby automatically giving rise to commercial prosperity. We may call this the Age of Commerce.

The Age of Conquests, of course, overlaps the Age of Commerce. The proud military traditions still hold sway and the great armies guard the frontiers, but gradually the desire to make money seems to gain hold of the public. During the military period, glory and honour were the principal objects of ambition. To the merchant, such ideas are but empty words, which add nothing to the bank balance.
XIV Art and luxury
The wealth which seems, almost without

effort, to pour into the country enables the commercial classes to grow immensely rich. How to spend all this money becomes a problem to the wealthy business community. Art, architecture and luxury find rich patrons. Splendid municipal buildings and wide streets lend dignity and beauty to the wealthy areas of great cities. The rich merchants build themselves palaces, and money is invested in communications,
highways, bridges, railways or hotels, according to the varied patterns of the ages.
The first half of the Age of Commerce appears to be peculiarly splendid. The ancient virtues of courage, patriotism and devotion to duty are still in evidence. The nation is proud, united and full of self- confidence. Boys are still required, first of all, to be manly—to ride, to shoot straight and to tell the truth. (It is remarkable what emphasis is placed, at this stage, on the manly virtue of truthfulness, for lying is cowardice—the fear of facing up to the situation.)
Boys’ schools are intentionally rough. Fru- gal eating, hard living, breaking the ice to have a bath and similar customs are aimed at producing a strong, hardy and fearless breed of men. Duty is the word constantly drum- med into the heads of young people.
The Age of Commerce is also marked by great enterprise in the exploration for new forms of wealth. Daring initiative is shown in the search for profitable enterprises in far corners of the earth, perpetuating to some degree the adventurous courage of the Age of Conquests.

XV The Age of Affluence
There does not appear to be any doubt that

money is the agent which causes the decline of this strong, brave and self-confident people. The decline in courage, enterprise and a sense of duty is, however, gradual.
The first direction in which wealth injures the nation is a moral one. Money replaces honour and adventure as the objective of the best young men. Moreover, men do not normally seek to make money for their country or their community, but for them- selves. Gradually, and almost imperceptibly,
the Age of Affluence silences the voice of duty. The object of the young and the ambitious is no longer fame, honour or service, but cash.
Education undergoes the same gradual transformation. No longer do schools aim at producing brave patriots ready to serve their country. Parents and students alike seek the educational qualifications which will command the highest salaries. The Arab moralist, Ghazali (1058-1111), complains in these very same words of the lowering of objectives in the declining Arab world of his time. Students, he says, no longer attend college to acquire learning and virtue, but to obtain those qualifications which will enable them to grow rich. The same situation is everywhere evident among us in the West today.
XVI High Noon
That which we may call the High Noon of

the nation covers the period of transition from the Age of Conquests to the Age of Affluence: the age of Augustus in Rome, that of Harun al-Rashid in Baghdad, of Sulaiman the Magnificent in the Ottoman Empire, or of Queen Victoria in Britain. Perhaps we might add the age of Woodrow Wilson in the United States.
All these periods reveal the same characteristics. The immense wealth accu- mulated in the nation dazzles the onlookers. Enough of the ancient virtues of courage, energy and patriotism survive to enable the state successfully to defend its frontiers. But, beneath the surface, greed for money is gradually replacing duty and public service. Indeed the change might be summarised as being from service to selfishness.
The Fate of Empires 9
10 The Fate of Empires
XVII Defensiveness
Another outward change which invariably

marks the transition from the Age of Conquests to the Age of Affluence is the spread of defensiveness. The nation, immen- sely rich, is no longer interested in glory or duty, but is only anxious to retain its wealth and its luxury. It is a period of defensiveness, from the Great Wall of China, to Hadrian’s Wall on the Scottish Border, to the Maginot Line in France in 1939.
Money being in better supply than courage, subsidies instead of weapons are employed to buy off enemies. To justify this departure from ancient tradition, the human mind easily devises its own justification. Military readiness, or aggressiveness, is denounced as primitive and immoral. Civilised peoples are too proud to fight. The conquest of one nation by another is declared to be immoral. Empires are wicked. This intellectual device enables us to suppress our feeling of inferiority, when we read of the heroism of our ancestors, and then ruefully contemplate our position today. ‘It is not that we are afraid to fight,’ we say, ‘but we should consider it immoral.’ This even enables us to assume an attitude of moral superiority.
The weakness of pacifism is that there are still many peoples in the world who are aggressive. Nations who proclaim themselves unwilling to fight are liable to be conquered by peoples in the stage of militarism— perhaps even to see themselves incorporated into some new empire, with the status of mere provinces or colonies.
When to be prepared to use force and when to give way is a perpetual human problem, which can only be solved, as best we can, in each successive situation as it arises. In fact, however, history seems to indicate that great
nations do not normally disarm from motives of conscience, but owing to the weakening of a sense of duty in the citizens, and the increase in selfishness and the desire for wealth and ease.
XVIII The Age of Intellect
We have now, perhaps arbitrarily, divided

the life-story of our great nation into four ages. The Age of the Pioneers (or the Outburst), the Age of Conquests, the Age of Commerce, and the Age of Affluence. The great wealth of the nation is no longer needed to supply the mere necessities, or even the luxuries of life. Ample funds are available also for the pursuit of knowledge.
The merchant princes of the Age of Commerce seek fame and praise, not only by endowing works of art or patronising music and literature. They also found and endow colleges and universities. It is remarkable with what regularity this phase follows on that of wealth, in empire after empire, divided by many centuries.
In the eleventh century, the former Arab Empire, then in complete political decline, was ruled by the Seljuk sultan, Malik Shah. The Arabs, no longer soldiers, were still the intellectual leaders of the world. During the reign of Malik Shah, the building of universities and colleges became a passion. Whereas a small number of universities in the great cities had sufficed the years of Arab glory, now a university sprang up in every town.
In our own lifetime, we have witnessed the same phenomenon in the U.S.A. and Britain. When these nations were at the height of their glory, Harvard, Yale, Oxford and Cambridge seemed to meet their needs. Now almost every city has its university.
The ambition of the young, once engaged in the pursuit of adventure and military glory, and then in the desire for the accumulation of wealth, now turns to the acquisition of academic honours.
It is useful here to take note that almost all the pursuits followed with such passion throughout the ages were in themselves good. The manly cult of hardihood, frank- ness and truthfulness, which characterised the Age of Conquests, produced many really splendid heroes.
The opening up of natural resources, and the peaceful accumulation of wealth, which marked the age of commercialism, appeared to introduce new triumphs in civilisation, in culture and in the arts. In the same way, the vast expansion of the field of knowledge achieved by the Age of Intellect seemed to mark a new high-water mark of human progress. We cannot say that any of these changes were ‘good’ or ‘bad’.
The striking features in the pageant of empire are:
(a) the extraordinary exactitude with which these stages have followed one another, in empire after empire, over centuries or even millennia; and
(b) the fact that the successive changes seem to represent mere changes in popular fashion—new fads and fancies which sweep away public opinion without logical reason. At first, popular enthusiasm is devoted to military glory, then to the accumulation of wealth and later to the acquisition of academic fame.
Why could not all these legitimate, and indeed beneficent, activities be carried on simultaneously, each of them in due modera- tion? Yet this never seemed to happen.

XIX The effects of intellectualism

There are so many things in human life which are not dreamt of in our popular philosophy. The spread of knowledge seems to be the most beneficial of human activities, and yet every period of decline is character- rised by this expansion of intellectual activity. ‘All the Athenians and strangers which were there spent their time in nothing else, but either to tell or to hear some new thing’ is the description given in the Acts of the Apostles of the decline of Greek

intellectualism.

The Age of Intellect is accompanied by

surprising advances in natural science. In the ninth century, for example, in the age of Mamun, the Arabs measured the circum- ference of the earth with remarkable accuracy. Seven centuries were to pass before Western Europe discovered that the world was not flat. Less than fifty years after the amazing scientific discoveries under Mamun, the Arab Empire collapsed. Won- derful and beneficent as was the progress of science, it did not save the empire from chaos.

The full flowering of Arab and Persian intellectualism did not occur until after their imperial and political collapse. Thereafter the intellectuals attained fresh triumphs in the academic field, but politically they became the abject servants of the often illiterate rulers. When the Mongols conqu- ered Persia in the thirteenth century, they were themselves entirely uneducated and were obliged to depend wholly on native Persian officials to administer the country and to collect the revenue. They retained as wazeer, or Prime Minister, one Rashid al- Din, a historian of international repute. 

Yet
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12 The Fate of Empires

the Prime Minister, when speaking to the Mongol II Khan, was obliged to remain throughout the interview on his knees. At state banquets, the Prime Minister stood behind the Khan’s seat to wait upon him. If the Khan were in a good mood, he occasionally passed his wazeer a piece of food over his shoulder.
As in the case of the Athenians, intellectualism leads to discussion, debate and argument, such as is typical of the Western nations today. Debates in elected assemblies or local committees, in articles in the Press or in interviews on television— endless and incessant talking.

Men are interminably different, and intellectual arguments rarely lead to agreement. Thus public affairs drift from bad to worse, amid an unceasing cacophony of argument. But this constant dedication to discussion seems to destroy the power of action. Amid a Babel of talk, the ship drifts on to the rocks.

XX The inadequacy of intellect
Perhaps the most dangerous by-product of

the Age of Intellect is the unconscious growth of the idea that the human brain can solve the problems of the world. Even on the low level of practical affairs this is patently untrue. Any small human activity, the local bowls club or the ladies’ luncheon club, requires for its survival a measure of self- sacrifice and service on the part of the members. In a wider national sphere, the survival of the nation depends basically on the loyalty and self-sacrifice of the citizens. The impression that the situation can be saved by mental cleverness, without unsel- fishness or human self-dedication, can only lead to collapse.

Thus we see that the cultivation of the human intellect seems to be a magnificent ideal, but only on condition that it does not weaken unselfishness and human dedication to service. Yet this, judging by historical precedent, seems to be exactly what it does do. Perhaps it is not the intellectualism which destroys the spirit of self-sacrifice—the least we can say is that the two, intellectualism and the loss of a sense of duty, appear simultaneously in the life-story of the nation.

Indeed it often appears in individuals, that the head and the heart are natural rivals. The brilliant but cynical intellectual appears at the opposite end of the spectrum from the emotional self-sacrifice of the hero or the martyr. Yet there are times when the perhaps unsophisticated self-dedication of the hero is more essential than the sarcasms of the clever.

XXI Civil dissensions

Another remarkable and unexpected

symptom of national decline is the intensi- fication of internal political hatreds. One would have expected that, when the survival of the nation became precarious, political factions would drop their rivalry and stand shoulder-to-shoulder to save their country.
In the fourteenth century, the weakening empire of Byzantium was threatened, and indeed dominated, by the Ottoman Turks. The situation was so serious that one would have expected every subject of Byzantium to abandon his personal interests and to stand with his compatriots in a last desperate attempt to save the country. The reverse occurred. The Byzantines spent the last fifty years of their history in fighting one another in repeated civil wars, until the Ottomans
moved in and administered the coup de grâce.

Britain has been governed by an elected parliament for many centuries. In former years, however, the rival parties observed many unwritten laws. Neither party wished to eliminate the other. All the members referred to one another as honourable gentlemen. But such courtesies have now lapsed. Booing, shouting and loud noises have undermined the dignity of the House, and angry exchanges are more frequent. We are fortunate if these rivalries are fought out in Parliament, but sometimes such hatreds are carried into the streets, or into industry in the form of strikes, demonstrations, boycotts and similar activities. True to the normal course followed by nations in decline, internal differences are not reconciled in an attempt to save the nation. On the contrary, internal rivalries become more acute, as the nation becomes weaker.

XXII The influx of foreigners

One of the oft-repeated phenomena of

great empires is the influx of foreigners to the capital city. Roman historians often complain of the number of Asians and Africans in Rome. Baghdad, in its prime in the ninth century, was international in its population—Persians, Turks, Arabs, Arme- nians, Egyptians, Africans and Greeks mingled in its streets.
In London today, Cypriots, Greeks, Italians, Russians, Africans, Germans and Indians jostle one another on the buses and in the underground, so that it sometimes seems difficult to find any British. The same applies to New York, perhaps even more so. This problem does not consist in any inferiority of one race as compared with
another, but simply in the differences between them.
In the age of the first outburst and the subsequent Age of Conquests, the race is normally ethnically more or less homogeneous. This state of affairs facilitates a feeling of solidarity and comradeship. But in the Ages of Commerce and Affluence, every type of foreigner floods into the great city, the streets of which are reputed to be paved with gold. As, in most cases, this great city is also the capital of the empire, the cosmopolitan crowd at the seat of empire exercises a political influence greatly in excess of its relative numbers.

Second- or third-generation foreign immigrants may appear outwardly to be entirely assimilated, but they often constitute a weakness in two directions. First, their basic human nature often differs from that of the original imperial stock. If the earlier imperial race was stubborn and slow- moving, the immigrants might come from more emotional races, thereby introducing cracks and schisms into the national policies, even if all were equally loyal.
Second, while the nation is still affluent, all the diverse races may appear equally loyal. But in an acute emergency, the immigrants will often be less willing to sacrifice their lives and their property than will be the original descendants of the founder race.
Third, the immigrants are liable to form communities of their own, protecting primarily their own interests, and only in the second degree that of the nation as a whole.
Fourth, many of the foreign immigrants will probably belong to races originally conquered by and absorbed into the empire. While the empire is enjoying its High Noon of prosperity, all these people are proud and

glad to be imperial citizens. But when decline sets in, it is extraordinary how the memory of ancient wars, perhaps centuries before, is suddenly revived, and local or provincial movements appear demanding secession or independence. Some day this phenomenon will doubtless appear in the now apparently monolithic and authoritarian Soviet empire. It is amazing for how long such provincial sentiments can survive.

Historical examples of this phenomenon are scarcely needed. The idle and captious Roman mob, with its endless appetite for free distributions of food—bread and games—is notorious, and utterly different from that stern Roman spirit which we associate with the wars of the early republic.

In Baghdad, in the golden days of Harun al-Rashid, Arabs were a minority in the imperial capital. Istanbul, in the great days of Ottoman rule, was peopled by inhabitants remarkably few of whom were descendants of Turkish conquerors. In New York, descendants of the Pilgrim Fathers are few and far between.

This interesting phenomenon is largely limited to great cities. The original conqu- ering race is often to be found in relative purity in rural districts and on far frontiers. It is the wealth of the great cities which draws the immigrants. As, with the growth of industry, cities nowadays achieve an ever greater preponderance over the countryside, so will the influence of foreigners increa- singly dominate old empires.
Once more it may be emphasised that I do not wish to convey the impression that immigrants are inferior to older stocks. They are just different, and they thus tend to introduce cracks and divisions.

XXIII Frivolity
As the nation declines in power and

wealth, a universal pessimism gradually pervades the people, and itself hastens the decline. There is nothing succeeds like success, and, in the Ages of Conquest and Commerce, the nation was carried triumphantly onwards on the wave of its own self-confidence. Republican Rome was repeatedly on the verge of extinction—in 390 B.C. when the Gauls sacked the city and in 216 B.C. after the Battle of Cannae. But no disasters could shake the resolution of the early Romans. Yet, in the later stages of Roman decline, the whole empire was deeply pessimistic, thereby sapping its own resolution.

Frivolity is the frequent companion of pessimism. Let us eat, drink and be merry, for tomorrow we die. The resemblance between various declining nations in this respect is truly surprising. The Roman mob, we have seen, demanded free meals and public games. Gladiatorial shows, chariot races and athletic events were their passion. In the Byzantine Empire the rivalries of the Greens and the Blues in the hippodrome attained the importance of a major crisis.
Judging by the time and space allotted to them in the Press and television, football and baseball are the activities which today chiefly interest the public in Britain and the United States respectively.
The heroes of declining nations are always the same—the athlete, the singer or the actor. The word ‘celebrity’ today is used to designate a comedian or a football player, not a statesman, a general, or a literary genius.

XXIV The Arab decline
In the first half of the ninth century,

Baghdad enjoyed its High Noon as the greatest and the richest city in the world. In 861, however, the reigning Khalif (caliph), Mutawakkil, was murdered by his Turkish mercenaries, who set up a military dictator- ship, which lasted for some thirty years. During this period the empire fell apart, the various dominions and provinces each assuming virtual independence and seeking its own interests. Baghdad, lately the capital of a vast empire, found its authority limited to Iraq alone.

The works of the contemporary historians of Baghdad in the early tenth century are still available. They deeply deplored the degeneracy of the times in which they lived, emphasising particularly the indifference to religion, the increasing materialism and the laxity of sexual morals. They lamented also the corruption of the officials of the government and the fact that politicians always seemed to amass large fortunes while they were in office.
The historians commented bitterly on the extraordinary influence acquired by popular singers over young people, resulting in a decline in sexual morality. The ‘pop’ singers of Baghdad accompanied their erotic songs on the lute, an instrument resembling the modern guitar. In the second half of the tenth century, as a result, much obscene sexual language came increasingly into use, such as would not have been tolerated in an earlier age. Several khalifs issued orders banning ‘pop’ singers from the capital, but within a few years they always returned.
An increase in the influence of women in public life has often been associated with na- tional decline. The later Romans complained
that, although Rome ruled the world, women ruled Rome. In the tenth century, a similar tendency was observable in the Arab Empire, the women demanding admission to the professions hitherto monopolised by men. ‘What,’ wrote the contemporary historian, Ibn Bessam, ‘have the professions of clerk, tax-collector or preacher to do with women? These occupations have always been limited to men alone.’ Many women practised law, while others obtained posts as university professors. There was an agitation for the appointment of female judges, which, however, does not appear to have succeeded.

Soon after this period, government and public order collapsed, and foreign invaders overran the country. The resulting increase in confusion and violence made it unsafe for women to move unescorted in the streets, with the result that this feminist movement collapsed.

The disorders following the military take- over in 861, and the loss of the empire, had played havoc with the economy. At such a moment, it might have been expected that everyone would redouble their efforts to save the country from bankruptcy, but nothing of the kind occurred. Instead, at this moment of declining trade and financial stringency, the people of Baghdad introduced a five-day week.
When I first read these contemporary descriptions of tenth-century Baghdad, I could scarcely believe my eyes. I told myself that this must be a joke! The descriptions might have been taken out of The Times today. The resemblance of all the details was especially breathtaking—the break-up of the empire, the abandonment of sexual morality, the ‘pop’ singers with their guitars, the entry of women into the professions, the five-day

week. I would not venture to attempt an explanation! There are so many mysteries about human life which are far beyond our comprehension.

XXV Political ideology
Today we attach immense importance to

the ideology of our internal politics. The Press and public media in the U.S.A. and Britain pour incessant scorn on any country the political institutions of which differ in any manner from our own idea of democracy. It is, therefore, interesting to note that the life-expectation of a great nation does not appear to be in any way affected by the nature of its institutions.
Past empires show almost every possible variation of political system, but all go through the same procedure from the Age of Pioneers through Conquest, Commerce, Affluence to decline and collapse.
XXVI The Mameluke Empire
The empire of the Mamelukes of Egypt

provides a case in point, for it was one of the most exotic ever to be recorded in history. It is also exceptional in that it began on one fixed day and ended on another, leaving no doubt of its precise duration, which was 267 years.
In the first part of the thirteenth century, Egypt and Syria were ruled by the Ayoubid sultans, the descendants of the family of Saladin. Their army consisted of Mamelukes, slaves imported as boys from the Steppes and trained as professional soldiers. On 1st May 1250, the Mamelukes mutinied, murdered Turan Shah, the Ayoubid sultan, and became the rulers of his empire.
The first fifty years of the Mameluke Empire were marked by desperate fighting
with the hitherto invincible Mongols, the descendants of Genghis Khan, who invaded Syria. By defeating the Mongols and driving them out of Syria, the Mamelukes saved the Mediterranean from the terrible fate which had overtaken Persia. In 1291, the Mame- lukes captured Acre, and put an end to the Crusades.
From 1309 to 1341, the Mameluke Empire was everywhere victorious and possessed the finest army in the world. For the ensuing hundred years the wealth of the Mameluke Empire was fabulous, slowly leading to luxury, the relaxation of discipline and to decline, with ever more bitter internal political rivalries. Finally the empire collap- sed in 1517, as the result of military defeat by the Ottomans.
The Mameluke government appears to us utterly illogical and fantastic. The ruling class was entirely recruited from young boys, born in what is now Southern Russia. Every one of them was enlisted as a private soldier. Even the sultans had begun life as private soldiers and had risen from the ranks. Yet this extraordinary political system resulted in an empire which passed through all the normal stages of conquest, commercialism, affluence and decline and which lasted approximately the usual period of time.
XXVII The master race
The people of the great nations of the past

seem normally to have imagined that their pre-eminence would last for ever. Rome appeared to its citizens to be destined to be for all time the mistress of the world. The Abbasid Khalifs of Baghdad declared that God had appointed them to rule mankind until the day of judgement. Seventy years ago, many people in Britain believed that the
empire would endure for ever. Although Hitler failed to achieve his objective, he declared that Germany would rule the world for a thousand years. That sentiments like these could be publicly expressed without evoking derision shows that, in all ages, the regular rise and fall of great nations has passed unperceived. The simplest statistics prove the steady rotation of one nation after another at regular intervals.
The belief that their nation would rule the world forever, naturally encouraged the citizens of the leading nation of any period to attribute their pre-eminence to hereditary virtues. They carried in their blood, they believed, qualities which constituted them a race of supermen, an illusion which inclined them to the employment of cheap foreign labour (or slaves) to perform menial tasks and to engage foreign mercenaries to fight their battles or to sail their ships.
These poorer peoples were only too happy to migrate to the wealthy cities of the empire, and thereby, as we have seen, to adulterate the close-knit, homogeneous character of the conquering race. The latter unconsciously assumed that they would always be the leaders of mankind, relaxed their energies, and spent an increasing part of their time in leisure, amusement or sport.
In recent years, the idea has spread widely in the West that ‘progress’ will be automatic without effort, that everyone will continue to grow richer and richer and that every year will show a ‘rise in the standard of living’. We have not drawn from history the obvious conclusion that material success is the result of courage, endurance and hard work—a conclusion nevertheless obvious from the history of the meteoric rise of our own ancestors. This self-assurance of its own
superiority seems to go hand-in-hand with the luxury resulting from wealth, in undermining the character of the dominant race.
XXVIII The welfare state
When the welfare state was first introduced

in Britain, it was hailed as a new high-water mark in the history of human development.
History, however, seems to suggest that the age of decline of a great nation is often a period which shows a tendency to philanthropy and to sympathy for other races. This phase may not be contradictory to the feeling described in the previous paragraph, that the dominant race has the right to rule the world. For the citizens of the great nation enjoy the role of Lady Bountiful. As long as it retains its status of leadership, the imperial people are glad to be generous, even if slightly condescending. The rights of citizenship are generously bestowed on every race, even those formerly subject, and the equality of mankind is proclaimed. The Roman Empire passed through this phase, when equal citizenship was thrown open to all peoples, such provincials even becoming senators and emperors.
The Arab Empire of Baghdad was equally, perhaps even more, generous. During the Age of Conquests, pure-bred Arabs had constituted a ruling class, but in the ninth century the empire was completely cosmopolitan.
State assistance to the young and the poor was equally generous. University students received government grants to cover their expenses while they were receiving higher education. The State likewise offered free medical treatment to the poor. The first free public hospital was opened in Baghdad in
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18 The Fate of Empires
the reign of Harun al-Rashid (786-809), and under his son, Mamun, free public hospitals sprang up all over the Arab world from Spain to what is now Pakistan.
The impression that it will always be automatically rich causes the declining empire to spend lavishly on its own benevolence, until such time as the economy collapses, the universities are closed and the hospitals fall into ruin.
It may perhaps be incorrect to picture the welfare state as the high-water mark of human attainment. It may merely prove to be one more regular milestone in the life- story of an ageing and decrepit empire.
XXIX Religion
Historians of periods of decadence often

refer to a decline in religion, but, if we extend our investigation over a period covering the Assyrians (859-612 B.C.) to our own times, we have to interpret religion in a very broad sense. Some such definition as ‘the human feeling that there is something, some invisible Power, apart from material objects, which controls human life and the natural world’.

We are probably too narrow and contemptuous in our interpretation of idol worship. The people of ancient civilisations were as sensible as we are, and would scarcely have been so foolish as to worship sticks and stones fashioned by their own hands. The idol was for them merely a symbol, and represented an unknown, spiritual reality, which controlled the lives of men and demanded human obedience to its moral precepts.

We all know only too well that minor differences in the human visualisation of this Spirit frequently became the ostensible
reason for human wars, in which both sides claimed to be fighting for the true God, but the absurd narrowness of human conceptions should not blind us to the fact that, very often, both sides believed their campaigns to have a moral background. Genghis Khan, one of the most brutal of all conquerors, claimed that God had delegated him the duty to exterminate the decadent races of the civilised world. Thus the Age of Conquests often had some kind of religious atmosphere, which implied heroic self- sacrifice for the cause.
But this spirit of dedication was slowly eroded in the Age of Commerce by the action of money. People make money for themselves, not for their country. Thus periods of affluence gradually dissolved the spirit of service, which had caused the rise of the imperial races.
In due course, selfishness permeated the community, the coherence of which was weakened until disintegration was threatened. Then, as we have seen, came the period of pessimism with the accompanying spirit of frivolity and sensual indulgence, by- products of despair. It was inevitable at such times that men should look back yearningly to the days of ‘religion’, when the spirit of self-sacrifice was still strong enough to make men ready to give and to serve, rather than to snatch.
But while despair might permeate the greater part of the nation, others achieved a new realisation of the fact that only readi- ness for self-sacrifice could enable a commu- nity to survive. Some of the greatest saints in history lived in times of national decadence, raising the banner of duty and service against the flood of depravity and despair.
In this manner, at the height of vice and frivolity the seeds of religious revival are quietly sown. After, perhaps, several generations (or even centuries) of suffering, the impoverished nation has been purged of its selfishness and its love of money, religion regains its sway and a new era sets in. ‘It is good for me that I have been afflicted,’ said the psalmist, ‘that I might learn Thy Statutes.’

XXX New combinations

We have traced the rise of an obscure race

to fame, through the stages of conquest, commercialism, affluence, and intellectu- alism, to disintegration, decadence and despair. We suggested that the dominant race at any given time imparts its leading characteristics to the world around, being in due course succeeded by another empire. By this means, we speculated, many successive races succeeded one another as super- powers, and in turn bequeathed their peculiar qualities to mankind at large.
But the objection may here be raised that some day the time will come when all the races of the world will in turn have enjoyed their period of domination and have collapsed again in decadence. When the whole human race has reached the stage of decadence, where will new energetic con- quering races be found?

The answer is at first partially obscured by our modern habit of dividing the human race into nations, which we seem to regard as water-tight compartments, an error respon- sible for innumerable misunderstandings.

In earlier times, warlike nomadic nations invaded the territories of decadent peoples and settled there. In due course, they
intermarried with the local population and a new race resulted, though it sometimes retained an old name. The barbarian invasions of the Roman Empire probably provide the example best known today in the West. Others were the Arab conquests of Spain, North Africa and Persia, the Turkish conquests of the Ottoman Empire, or even the Norman Conquest of England.

In all such cases, the conquered countries were originally fully inhabited and the inva- ders were armies, which ultimately settled down and married, and produced new races.

In our times, there are few nomadic conquerors left in the world, who could invade more settled countries bringing their tents and flocks with them. But ease of travel has resulted in an equal, or probably an even greater, intermixture of populations. The extreme bitterness of modern internal poli- tical struggles produces a constant flow of migrants from their native countries to others, where the social institutions suit them better.
The vicissitudes of trade and business similarly result in many persons moving to other countries, at first intending to return, but ultimately settling down in their new countries.
The population of Britain has been constantly changing, particularly in the last sixty years, owing to the influx of immigrants from Europe, Asia and Africa, and the exit of British citizens to the Dominions and the United States. The latter is, of course, the most obvious example of the constant rise of new nations, and of the transformation of the ethnic content of old nations through this modern nomadism.
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20 The Fate of Empires

XXXI Decadence of a system
It is of interest to note that decadence is

the disintegration of a system, not of its individual members. The habits of the members of the community have been corrupted by the enjoyment of too much money and too much power for too long a period. The result has been, in the framework of their national life, to make them selfish and idle. A community of selfish and idle people declines, internal quarrels develop in the division of its dwindling wealth, and pessimism follows, which some of them endeavour to drown in sensuality or frivolity. In their own surroundings, they are unable to redirect their thoughts and their energies into new channels.
But when individual members of such a society emigrate into entirely new surroun- dings, they do not remain conspicuously decadent, pessimistic or immoral among the inhabitants of their new homeland. Once enabled to break away from their old channels of thought, and after a short period of readjustment, they become normal citizens of their adopted countries. Some of them, in the second and third generations, may attain pre-eminence and leadership in their new communities.
This seems to prove that the decline of any nation does not undermine the energies or the basic character of its members. Nor does the decadence of a number of such nations permanently impoverish the human race. Decadence is both mental and moral deterioration, produced by the slow decline of the community from which its members cannot escape, as long as they remain in their old surroundings. But, transported elsewhere, they soon discard their decadent
ways of thought, and prove themselves equal to the other citizens of their adopted country.

XXXII Decadence is not physical
Neither is decadence physical. The citizens of nations in decline are sometimes described as too physically emasculated to be able to bear hardship or make great efforts. This does not seem to be a true picture. Citizens of great nations in decadence are normally physically larger and stronger than

those of their barbarian invaders.
Moreover, as was proved in Britain in the

first World War, young men brought up in luxury and wealth found little difficulty in accustoming themselves to life in the front- line trenches. The history of exploration proves the same point. Men accustomed to comfortable living in homes in Europe or America were able to show as much endurance as the natives in riding camels across the desert or in hacking their way through tropical forests.
Decadence is a moral and spiritual disease, resulting from too long a period of wealth and power, producing cynicism, decline of religion, pessimism and frivolity. The citizens of such a nation will no longer make an effort to save themselves, because they are not convinced that anything in life is worth saving.

XXXII Human diversity
Generalisations are always dangerous.

Human beings are all different. The variety in human life is endless. If this be the case with individuals, it is much more so with nations and cultures. No two societies, no two peoples, no two cultures are exactly the same. In these circumstances, it will be easy
for critics to find many objections to what has been said, and to point out exceptions to the generalisations.
There is some value in comparing the lives of nations to those of individuals. No two persons in the world are identical. Moreover their lives are often affected by accidents or by illness, making the divergences even more obvious. Yet, in fact, we can generalise about human life from many different aspects. The characteristics of childhood, adolescence, youth, middle and old age are well known. Some adolescents, it is true, are prematurely wise and serious. Some persons in middle age still seem to he young. But such exceptions do not invalidate the general character of human life from the cradle to the grave.
I venture to submit that the lives of nations follow a similar pattern. Superficially, all seem to be completely different. Some years ago, a suggestion was submitted to a certain television corporation that a series of talks on Arab history would form an interesting sequence. The proposal was immediately vetoed by the director of programmes with the remark, “What earthly interest could the history of medieval Arabs have for the general public today?”
Yet, in fact, the history of the Arab imperial age—from conquest through commercialism, to affluence, intellectualism, science and decadence—is an exact precursor of British imperial history and lasted almost exactly the same time.
If British historians, a century ago, had devoted serious study to the Arab Empire, they could have foreseen almost everything that has happened in Britain down to 1976.
XXXIV A variety of falls
It has been shown that, normally, the rise

and fall of great nations are due to internal reasons alone. Ten generations of human beings suffice to transform the hardy and enterprising pioneer into the captious citizen of the welfare state. But whereas the life histories of great nations show an unex- pected uniformity, the nature of their falls depends largely on outside circumstances and thus shows a high degree of diversity.
The Roman Republic, as we have seen, was followed by the empire, which became a super-state, in which all the natives of the Mediterranean basin, regardless of race, possessed equal rights. The name of Rome, originally a city-state, passed from it to an equalitarian international empire.
This empire broke in half, the western half being overrun by northern barbarians, the eastern half forming the East Roman or Byzantine Empire.
The vast Arab Empire broke up in the ninth century into many fragments, of which one former colony, Moslem Spain, ran its own 250-year course as an independent empire. The homelands of Syria and Iraq, however, were conquered by successive waves of Turks to whom they remained subject for 1,000 years.
The Mameluke Empire of Egypt and Syria, on the other hand, was conquered in one campaign by the Ottomans, the native population merely suffering a change of masters.
The Spanish Empire (1500-1750) endured for the conventional 250 years, terminated only by the loss of its colonies. The homeland of Spain fell, indeed, from its high estate of a
The Fate of Empires 21
22 The Fate of Empires
super-power, but remained as an indepen- dent nation until today.
Romanov Russia (1682-1916) ran the normal course, but was succeeded by the Soviet Union.
It is unnecessary to labour the point, which we may attempt to summarise briefly. Any regime which attains great wealth and power seems with remarkable regularity to decay and fall apart in some ten generations. The ultimate fate of its component parts, however, does not depend on its internal nature, but on the other organisations which appear at the time of its collapse and succeed in devouring its heritage. Thus the lives of great powers are surprisingly uniform, but the results of their falls are completely diverse.
XXXV Inadequacy of our historical studies
In fact, the modern nations of the West have derived only limited value from their historical studies, because they have never made them big enough. For history to have meaning, as we have already stated, it must be the history of the human race.
Far from achieving such an ideal, our historical studies are largely limited to the history of our own country during the lifetime of the present nation. Thus the time- factor is too short to allow the longer rhythms of the rise and fall of nations even to be noticed. As the television director indicated, it never even crosses our minds that longer periods could be of any interest.
When we read the history of our own nation, we find the actions of our ancestors described as glorious, while those of other peoples are depicted as mean, tyrannical or cowardly. Thus our history is (intentionally)
not based on facts. We are emotionally unwilling to accept that our forbears might have been mean or cowardly.
Alternatively, there are ‘political’ schools of history, slanted to discredit the actions of our past leaders, in order to support modern political movements. In all these cases, history is not an attempt to ascertain the truth, but a system of propaganda, devoted to the furtherance of modern projects, or the gratification of national vanity.
Men can scarcely be blamed for not learning from the history they are taught. There is nothing to learn from it, because it is not true.
XXXVI Small nations
The word ‘empires’ has been used in this

essay to signify nations which achieve the status of great powers, or super-powers, in the jargon of today—nations which have dominated the international scene for two or three centuries. At any given time, however, there are also smaller states which are more or less self-contained. Do these live the same ‘lives’ as the great nations, and pass through the same phases?
It seems impossible to generalise on this issue. In general, decadence is the outcome of too long a period of wealth and power. If the small country has not shared in the wealth and power, it will not share in the decadence.
XXXVII The emerging pattern
In spite of the endless variety and the

infinite complications of human life, a general pattern does seem to emerge from these considerations. It reveals many successive empires covering some 3,000 years, as having followed similar stages of
development and decline, and as having, to a surprising degree, ‘lived’ lives of very similar length.
The life-expectation of a great nation, it appears, commences with a violent, and usually unforeseen, outburst of energy, and ends in a lowering of moral standards, cynicism, pessimism and frivolity.
If the present writer were a millionaire, he would try to establish in some university or other a department dedicated solely to the study of the rhythm of the rise and fall of powerful nations throughout the world. History goes back only some 3,000 years, because before that period writing was not sufficiently widespread to allow of the survival of detailed records. But within that period, the number of empires available for study is very great.
At the commencement of this essay, the names of eleven such empires were listed, but these included only the Middle East and the modern nations of the West. India, China and Southern America were not included, because the writer knows nothing about them. A school founded to study the rise and fall of empires would probably find at least twenty-four great powers available for dissection and analysis.
The task would not be an easy one, if indeed the net were cast so wide as to cover virtually all the world’s great nations in 3,000 years. The knowledge of language alone, to enable detailed investigations to be pursued, would present a formidable obstacle.
XXXVIII Would it help?
It is pleasing to imagine that, from such

studies, a regular life-pattern of nations would emerge, including an analysis of the various changes which ultimately lead to
decline, decadence and collapse. It is tempting to assume that measures could be adopted to forestall the disastrous effects of excessive wealth and power, and thence of subsequent decadence. Perhaps some means could be devised to prevent the activist Age of Conquests and Commerce deteriorating into the Age of Intellect, producing endless talking but no action.
It is tempting to think so. Perhaps if the pattern of the rise and fall of nations were regularly taught in schools, the general public would come to realise the truth, and would support policies to maintain the spirit of duty and self-sacrifice, and to forestall the accumulation of excessive wealth by one nation, leading to the demoralisation of that nation.
Could not the sense of duty and the initiative needed to give rise to action be retained parallel with intellectual develop- ment and the discoveries of natural science?
The answer is doubtful, though we could but try. The weaknesses of human nature, however, are so obvious, that we cannot be too confident of success. Men bursting with courage, energy and self-confidence cannot easily be restrained from subduing their neighbours, and men who see the prospect of wealth open to them will not readily be prevented from pursuing it.
Perhaps it is not in the real interest of humanity that they should be so prevented, for it is in periods of wealth that art, architecture, music, science and literature make the greatest progress.
Moreover, as we have seen where great empires are concerned, their establishment may give rise to wars and tragedies, but their periods of power often bring peace, security and prosperity to vast areas of territory. Our
The Fate of Empires 23

24 The Fate of Empires
knowledge and our experience (perhaps our basic human intellects) are inadequate to pronounce whether or not the rise and fall of great nations is the best system for the best of all possible worlds.
These doubts, however, need not prevent us from attempting to acquire more knowledge on the rise and fall of great powers, or from endeavouring, in the light of such knowledge, to improve the moral quality of human life.
Perhaps, in fact, we may reach the conclusion that the successive rise and fall of great nations is inevitable and, indeed, a system divinely ordained. But even this would be an immense gain. For we should know where we stand in relation to our human brothers and sisters. In our present state of mental chaos on the subject, we divide ourselves into nations, parties or communities and fight, hate and vilify one another over developments which may perhaps be divinely ordained and which seem to us, if we take a broader view, completely uncontrollable and inevitable. If we could accept these great movements as beyond our control, there would be no excuse for our hating one another because of them.
However varied, confusing and contra- dictory the religious history of the world may appear, the noblest and most spiritual of the devotees of all religions seem to reach the conclusion that love is the key to human life. Any expansion of our knowledge which may lead to a reduction in our unjustified hates is therefore surely well worth while.
XXXIX Summary
As numerous points of interest have arisen

in the course of this essay, I close with a brief summary, to refresh the reader’s mind.
(a) We do not learn from history because our studies are brief and prejudiced.
(b) In a surprising manner, 250 years emerges as the average length of national greatness.
(c) This average has not varied for 3,000 years. Does it represent ten generations?
(d) The stages of the rise and fall of great nations seem to be:
The Age of Pioneers (outburst) The Age of Conquests
The Age of Commerce
The Age of Affluence

The Age of Intellect
The Age of Decadence.
(e) Decadence is marked by:
Defensiveness
Pessimism
Materialism
Frivolity
An influx of foreigners
The Welfare State
A weakening of religion.
(f) Decadence is due to:
Too long a period of wealth and power Selfishness
Love of money
The loss of a sense of duty.
(g) The life histories of great states are

amazingly similar, and are due to internal factors.
(h) Their falls are diverse, because they are largely the result of external causes.
(i) History should be taught as the history of the human race, though of course with emphasis on the history of the student’s own country. 

95 comments:

Unknown said...

excellent article.

you can see in successive generations some of these same trends.

parents saved and worked hard so their children had a better chance and the children squander the gift or failed to value it or despised their parents for it.

each successive generation loses more of what it's parents had learned.

an easy go doesn't usually prepare one well for the world and in the west people don't realize that what they have is not the standard that the majority of the world have.

Akula said...

I also recommend "Guns, Germs, and Steel" by Jared Diamond for an overview of some of the broadest patterns of human history. I found it fascinating.

Peter Hyatt said...

Unknown,

although I cannot vouch that this continued, the Staal family from Canada, famous for hockey sons, were featured, some years back, in a documentary.

It showed that the grown boys, millionaires, still spent the summer on the still open Staal farm, still doing manual labor.

The older boys talked about marrying and having children and having their children work manual labor for their grandparents.

Inspiring.

Parents who deny their children are loving them and their future; those who indulge are not.

With our emotions, it is a battle between emotion and intellect.
Even being aware of the battle can help parents.

re history

Jonathan Edwards' writings are valuable.


Peter

rob said...

I read the article with interest. We seem to have checked all the boxes.

Trigger said...

"we reject truth, and think ourselves the highest authority..."

Isn't this the reason that all cosmic religions, cults, and hedonistic belief systems exist? as a means to counter absolute truth, no matter what the cost in human misery?

It is to be expected that these kinds of authoritative "thinkers" are so eager for powerful exchanges, where they can claim authority, although it results in disaster in the lives of so many other people, is all that matters to them.

Welcome to Earth

Resista said...

Yet no mention in any writing is the one constant, and that is God the creator who has ensured there is a yard stick by which the human race could measure itself by and aligne itself to in all aspects of human behaviour,since the beginning of earths His-story. The humane race has consistently worked to deny,disprove and distance it self from the one and only unifying source of life.

Trigger said...

Well stated Resista.

Anonymous said...

Is anyone following the case of the bridge perp in MA?
Did anyone read the interview/article with the lady who's door the girl knocked on? Don't get me wrong I think the bridge perp did do the crime...I just find some things in the article with the lady who's door she knocked on to contain some things I wondered about like for example she says she didn't know what had happened to the little girl until she saw it in the news the next day. If a 7 yr old showed up at your door soaking wet with strangle marks at 4 am wouldn't you ask what had happened? I just find it so odd and I don't know what to make of it? Anyone have any thoughts? Also, why would she call a friend who used to be a police officer first and she says then the friend told her to call 911. I guess I can understand that, however, I do not understand how within the whole scenario, including calling 911 that she did not know what had happened to the girl...maybe it was bad reporting in that they did not seem to ask her "well did you ask her why she was standing soaking wet at 4 am on your doorstep?" It's just so strange. I mean wouldn't you at least ask the little girl "Honey what's wrong? How did you get here? (Keep in mind it was 4 am) Why are you soaking wet? Are you OK? What happend to you?" I do believe the bridge perp did what he is accused of I just found the interview/article with the lady who's door she knocked on quite odd.

Anonymous said...

I mean wouldn't you at least ask "How did you get here? Who were you with? Who brought you here?" I just find it so strange.

Christa Kitten said...

With our emotions, it is a battle between emotion and intellect. Painful reality I've learned.

Hey Jude said...

The Religion of Rights

'European society", says Sir Roger Scruton, "is rapidly jettisoning its Christian heritage and has found nothing to put in its place save the religion of human rights". '

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b092gkks

Yesterday on BBC.Radio 4

Peter Hyatt said...

Resista,

hence my opening caveat.

This is why "inalienable rights" is critical.

If they come from us, we can take them back. If they come from our Creator, we cannot.

I think the rise of leftism may help those who consider themselves atheists, that there is no such thing, not only based upon logic, but upon application as well.

I have a working theory on how we got here and in short, it is not the fault of the leftists.



Peter

tania cadogan said...

I wonder what will happen and what explanatons and excuses will be uttered when life is found elsewhere in our galaxy,universe or multiverse(or found to have existed in our solar system)?

Peter Hyatt said...

"I wonder what will happen and what explanatons and excuses will be uttered when life is found elsewhere in our galaxy,universe or multiverse(or found to have existed in our solar system)?"

First "when" presupposes, rather than ask "if", as if is definitively now known, which would be a claim of absolute truth here.

But if life is found outside of our known area:

What excuses?
Why would "excuse" be used? What would such excuse?

What explanations?

What utterances?

Why all the above?

Are there people claiming today that there is no possible life source outside our galaxy or universe?

Therefore, such excuses by whom?

I would be interested in reading not only the claims that there is no possible life outside of our galaxy, but why such claims are made.


I've not met anyone who has claimed with absolute knowledge that no life exists (the ultimate negative) but I have read lots of expectations or hope that life exists elsewhere.

This is a puzzling post.

Peter

Peter Hyatt said...

Akula, I will look into it. (no promises to read if it is lengthy; I have too many on my list now)

Hey Jude, it is a religion; agreed. It has its higher authority, its demand for worship, its definitive declaration of truth, its divide between faithful and infidel, and so on. Everyone has beliefs beyond themselves; all you need to do is listen to them. They will make definitive statements of such. It is impossible not to, if one possesses both reason and speech.

It is that within the religion of Leftism, we do not have "faith", that is, the belief in that which cannot be seen, but actual absurdity; which is why self destruction, violence, etc, is indicated. It is the ultimate insanity, especially as it makes its demands upon morals and ethics.

Faith: to believe in a purpose for life and eternality. One is present and appeals to the logic we exercise, but the other can only be under the realm of "faith."

Leftism is temporal, only, fascist and tyrannical.

Its transient nature, however, shows consistency.

Here is an interesting exercise that I would enjoy reading posts about:

Based upon what you have seen just 10 years time, what will be the new "virtues" and "sins" of tomorrow?

With "tomorrow", I mean within the next decade only; not beyond.

What will be the next "civil right"?
What will be the next "sin" to be condemned?
What will be the next new "virtue" to be held up, praised, celebrated, and so on?

I appreciate any feedback and predictions.

Peter

Trigger said...

"What will be the next "civil right?"

My best guess is the right to marry your pet or animal.

Or the right to euthanize your child if seems to be an unreasonable burden.

It will be a sin to disagree with the government.

It will be a virtue to accuse your neighbor of wrong doing when they resist your plans for their lives.







Peter Hyatt said...

Trigger, I agree about pets and "meaningful relationships" and non judgment.

I think pedophilia is up for some human civil rights action too.

Interesting article on Global Warming and blaming Houston on air conditioners and cars:

http://www.theblaze.com/news/2017/09/02/scientist-shuts-down-climate-change-alarmists-with-new-report-about-hurricane-harvey/?utm_content=buffera1f8d&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=buffer

Laura said...

Could someone look at this article & share their thoughts about it.
Is it odd the woman, although having noticed the girl was soaking wet & providing her with a towel & dry shirt did not ask "honey why are you soaking wet?"
Is it odd the wonan did not ask her how she had gotten there at 4 am, who had brought her to the area? Nothing.
Also, is it odd sge called a friend before calling 911?
I dont know what to make of any of it & I am curious if others find some of the details in the woman's account odd?

http://www.telegram.com/news/20170831/wee-visitor-wet-from-lake-quinsig-astonishes-woman-at-4-am

Laura said...

Ive actually thought hard about why someone would not ask these obvious questions of the 7 yr old showing up soaking wet on the persons doorstep at 4 am (please keep in mind the area near this house has 2 very busy roads & people do not even walk along either road in daylight & the only way it majes sense to me would be if the individual had been drinking the situation may have seemed less odd than it actually was. I am curious of ithers thoughts as to why basic questiins were not asked of the child by the lady who found her...I dont know what to make of it? There is no reason to believe bridge perp isnt the actual culprit...I just am very curious as to why the lady did not ask the little girl what had happened to her abd how she ended up there at 4 am? Maybe she just didnt want to make the little girl uncomfortable?

tania cadogan said...

Hi Peter, given the age of our universe 14.5 billion years, the sheer size of our universe hundreds of billions of galaxies plus each with hundreds of billions of stars each with planets it is a mathematical impossibility that we are the only life to have ever existed at any time in this galaxy let alone universe, more so given we live in a multiverse (if the universe is expanding, what is it expanding into? Another universe)
it is egocetric to believe we are the only life to have ever existed anywhere and any when.
Life will be found in various stages from microbial to bacterial and all the way up to millions if not billions of years old or even those long extinct, wiped out through many means, then there are those eaten up by super novae and hypernovae, black holes and goodness knows what else.

Looking into the night sky we see only a miniscule number of stars in our local galactic neighborhood with the naked eye less than 10,000 in perfect conditions.
The only naked eye objects not part of the Milky Way Galaxy are the three or four galaxies visible to the naked eye: the two Magellanic Clouds, the Andromeda Galaxy, and possibly the Triangulum Galaxy.
More can be seen if you look towards the galactic plane but again this is only in our galaxy using binoculars and even more with telescopes.

How will religious leaders explain alien life, especially if it looks nothing like us?
God made mankind in his own image except he also made purple blobs, green tentacled things and so on who also are older than us, more intelligent than us, look nothing like us.
There are plenty of religious people leaders and followers who claim we are the only life ever, the only universe, heck even those who claim the earth is only 6000 years old.

If life is found then a lot of questions will be asked as to why god didn't make them look like us and therefore in his own image.
What is life originated by panspermia or we were created by aliens as a science lab school project and our universe is one of billions.
All those who based their lives and created religions to ridicule older religions, other sects or personal beliefs or created to fuel their own demands now having to explain that there is no god, aliens exist and are older than us, wiser than us (or still sitting in primordial soup wondering what's edible apart from them)
I have met many over the years that insist we are the only life in the universe, even one stating the Earth is only 6000 years old (and they are highly educated)

The ructions that will happen when religions of all kinds have to announce that we are not alone, life is everywhere, we are not unique nor chosen will be fascinating to watch.
Sadly it will also get very messy as well.

Laura said...

Tania, Buddhism believes we are only one of countless galaxies all containing life and that each galaxy itself "reincarnates" so to speak after the galaxy finally "dies". Buddhism believes there are Buddhas/Bodhisatvas (Christs) on every planet in all of these countless galaxies. As our bodies contain countless cells, they similarly believe each galaxy is like one of these countless cells within "maya" (the play of life). You have not made Buddhism look foolish or inadequate with what you have written, and since the beliefs of Buddhism encapsulate (embrace) Christianity in that Christ is much revered as a "Boddhisatva" (enlightened being) within Buddhism as well as his resurrection taken literally as Christians believe it that his actual body (not just spirit) rose from the dead and was walking about the earth (one of the gospels describes Christ in his ressurected form as being able to disappear & reappear at will--this is identical to the way Buddhists view boddhistvas (enlightened beings who return to earth in their previous physical form to help others become enlightened), your theory has not disproven Christianity or Buddhism. You need to understand Buddhism, its beliefs about galaxies and also the way in which it embraces Christianity perfectly to understand that your concerns are no problem to either Buddhism & Christianity which are 2 of the worlds major religions.

Laura said...

I should clarify that Buddhism believes there are countless universes (in my entry above please replace the word "galaxy" with "universe".

Laura said...

Even trippier, Buddhism believes each human individual contains the entire universe "maya" (keep in mind they believe there are countless universes as a sidenote) within themselves. Your concerns are dwarfed by the philosophy contained within Buddhism.

Anonymous said...

I dont think science believes there are ither universes, but Buddhism does. It believes there are literally countless universes that eventually "die" and then reincarnate. I thought was so trippy when I learned that! Doesnt it call into question ecerything we know about space & time or even consciousness that there are millions of other universes outside of our own? Budhism has some really great insights that much more clearly articulate Christian beliefs strangely enough. Hinduism is very compatible with Christianity on many levels also--I think Buddhism & Hinguism has some very profound thinkers. Christianity is more down to earth but also has some pretty trippy stuff in it...Christ's powers of performing miracles, healings etc would not surprise Buddhists--they think he is a "Boddhisatva"...an enlightened being who has chosen to return to earth to help others.

Unknown said...

Tania, why would life on other planets negate God?

tania cadogan said...

Hi Laura, there are hundreds of billions of galaxies and as seems to be the case hundreds of billions of universes in this time dimension alone.
Imagine all the possibilities for life forms based on other elements (we are based on carbon)
Silicon based which would produce rocks and crystalline lifeforms, (Discworld trolls anyone?)
Then you have all the gas elements, the metallic elements, the radioactive elements who could perhaps live in suns.

Staring into the night sky, seeing a few thousand stars and realizing how many hundreds of billions of stars are out there in our galaxy alone and then there are hundreds of billions of galaxies, makes me realize just how insignificant and inconsequential we are. A teeny tiny planet in a solar system surrounding a small sun, in the outer arm of an average to small galaxy.
All those suns and even more planets and i am quite possibly unique (although who knows what with parallel dimensions and all that, perhaps every possible incarnation of me from every possible decision ever made anywhere and any when may be possible as well. Ooh what a thought)
Multi me's none of whom can decide what flavor ice cream to have if there are more than two flavors :)
I wonder if bacteria have the same thoughts as they swim in a drop of water?


tania cadogan said...

Perhaps the question should be, why would they need to believe in a god?

Who created god if god exists is the $64000 question?

Anonymous said...

Well, Tania, first of all science does not believe there are hundreds of billions of universes in this time dimension as you stated. Science has no knowledge of any universe outside of this one universe. If there are universes outside of this universe they would not exist in the same time or space dimension.
If there is sentient life in other galaxies (or universes) there can be other Christs or eblighttened ones even if life does not look like human life.
Atheists make me chuckle as life here on earth alone is so amazingly complex and unexplainable yet atheists "doubt" God. How can you doubt God? He is in everything...the sky, the trees, every life form...he is RIGHT THERE. Atheists are willfully ignorant.

Anonymous said...

Also, it doesnt make me think "we" are "inconsequential". Do you feel you can quantify a spiritual experience? Does it matter how many other sentient beings there are? God's love is ALL.

Anonymous said...

This is my spiritual practice:

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=92i5m3tV5XYfor&feature=youtu.be

Unknown said...

Blogger tania cadogan said...
Perhaps the question should be, why would they need to believe in a god?

Who created god if god exists

Tania, that was my argument a few years ago. We will never know everything.

Imagine morality without God. It can not exist as it will be subjective to everyone and meaningless.

Today even atheists have had the benefit (in the modern western world) of the Judeo-Christian belief system. I doubt that will be true of future generations if we stay on our present course.

Anonymous said...

God exists outside of space & time so why you atheists try to apply causality ie. "Who created God?"
Who creates a new baby? Meaning where does that baby come from?
God created Himself. Hinduisn (as well as Christianity) seems to understand this.

Anonymous said...

Morality can exist without God.
Spend some time with animals...most have qualities such as kindness, decency, oftentimes courageous sacrifices made to care for their young.
WAKE UP!!!!!!!!!!!!

tania cadogan said...

Anonymous said...

God exists outside of space & time so why you atheists try to apply causality ie. "Who created God?"
Who creates a new baby? Meaning where does that baby come from?
God created Himself. Hinduisn (as well as Christianity) seems to understand this.

How can god create himself?
For him to create himself he had to have existed prior to his own creation which again goes back to my question:
Who created god?

Who creates a new baby? Meaning where does that baby come from?
When a man and a woman have a special hug sometimes a baby is created.
Seed from the man known as sperm, get together with the egg of the female and one lucky sperm will manage to fertilize the egg.
This is known as conception.
The egg will then contain cells which begin to divide, 2,4,8, 16 and so on.
Inside the mommy's tummy is a place called the uterus, the fertilized egg will find a nice place to nestle and over a period of approximately 9 months the cells will continue to multiply and then become specialized with some cells becoming part of the brain, others part of the skin, and so on.
After 9 months or so the original egg and sperm become an embryo, a foetus and eventually a baby which will be born and over a period of years grow from being totally dependent on the mother for everything to becoming independent and eventually growing into an adult and repeating the cycle.

Unfortunately storks do not deliver babies (the payload would be too heavy for flight) nor are they found in the cabbage patch (difficult if you live in the middle of a desert or somewhere where it is extremely cold and consists of snow and ice only.

Have a nice day

Unknown said...

Anonymous Anonymous said...
Morality can exist without God.
Spend some time with animals...most have qualities such as kindness, decency, oftentimes courageous sacrifices made to care for their young.
WAKE UP!!!!!!!!!!!!


Animals do not have morality. You are projecting. The same goes for the term courage as applied to animals The morality the west applied to life came form the Judeo-Christian teachings.(I use past tense because it is becoming subjective in direct proportion to the loss of Judeo-Christian principals). That is not to say previous civilizations didn't practice morality but it was much more subjective in those societies.

I suggest you read and study more history. Starting with reading Peters article. And if you have read it then read it again because it seems you have missed the point of it.

Anon said...

Yeah duh I dont mean how are babies made--I mean where do they come from? Babies have a soul and a spirit. Who made it? Where did it come from? The same way you asked "Who made God"?
Your belief in causality outside of a time/space dimension is rather naive dont you think? Dont you agree God must exist outside of time & space if he created the universe? How can you apply causality derived from our understanding of time/space to God? Answer: YOU CANT.

Anon said...

Yeah OK smarty pants "Unknown": First of all my PTSD is bad today and I am unable to concentrate on reading the very lengthy post Peter wrote. I read his article about the use of the word "immediately" (very interesting as always Peter). I dont need to read it to know YOU ARE WRONG! You have not ever loved an animal or you would understand that many animals possess KINDNESS, LOVE, GENTLENESS, DECENCY, CONCERN, EVEN A SENSE OF RESPONSIBILTY. Morality is not dependant on God. It is inborn.
Good Day!

Anonymous said...

Have you ever seen youtube videos where an animals rescues an animal of a whole other species or even rescues a bird? Is that not a moral action? Some animals are not only moral, thry are intuitive, like horses, possessing extra sensory perception. Chimps and gorillas have shown complex feelings of empathy to, for example, a woman who had had a miscarriage and explained a simple version of that to the chimp using sign language. I suggest you attempt to understand animals more than you do.

Unknown said...

Have you ever seen youtube videos where an animals rescues an animal of a whole other species or even rescues a bird? Is that not a moral action? Some animals are not only moral, thry are intuitive, like horses, possessing extra sensory perception. Chimps and gorillas have shown complex feelings of empathy to, for example, a woman who had had a miscarriage and explained a simple version of that to the chimp using sign language. I suggest you attempt to understand animals more than you do.

you are projecting. yes animals have complex feelings. they don't have morality or the ability to make moral judgments. They do not make moral judgments. empathy is not morality.

you are applying your feelings to the animals, it is called projection.

Anonymous said...

The repetition in your response, unknown, is sensitive and suggests you know that animals do possess morality. You know that there are animals who are of the same species (for example dogs or cats) who are sweet and kind and loving and animals who are cruel and vicious. I have seen firsthand that certain animals possess "goodness", therefore they must have the capacity to possess it's opposite, "cruelty" or even "evil". I cannot explain how that works, but I have seen it to be true. Animals all have their own personality, just as humans, and having adopted 1 stray and 1 feral cat who had never allowed humans near it (who I actually tamed--and I will say that a tamed wild animal becomes incredibly affectionate to the person who has tamed it strangely enough) I can tell you that these animals who have lived in hardship oftentimes possess a goodness, kindness, and sweetness, and patience to them which can only be described as moral. We cannot understand this. Only God can.

Anonymous said...

Here is an article I just pulled up:

"Animals can tell the difference between right and wrong"

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/earth/wildlife/5373379/Animals-can-tell-right-from-wrong.html

My understanding of this comes from adopting stray animals (one feral) as well as a stray dog when I was a kid. These instances where you are literally "befriending" the animals allow you to perceive this quality of goodness in the animal, I cannot explain it or articulate it as it is difficult to put into words.

Anonymous said...

Very interesting article re: animals knowing right from wrong--very worth the read! I was astounded!

Unknown said...

no animals do not exercise morality. It is your projection that make it seem so. the perception that animals express morality is in your mind.

Peter Hyatt said...

Judaism and Christianity have believed in other beings for more than 4,000 years. The ideology identifies other created beings that are different than the human race.


The projective prejudice evident in posts negates any chance of success in analysis even if trained.

It is the nature of analysis and how we approach it. I generally don't answer it unless it falsely identifies principle.

Peter

Unknown said...

your animal/morality argument reminds me of an experiment a university did in the 60's or 70's.

they raised a chimp from birth as if it were a human with no contact with it's own species.

it eventually became uncontrollable (they are incredibly strong) and ended up in an animal sanctuary of types. no it didn't act human at all.

one of the early researchers followed up years later to see how it was. the woman enter the cage and was set upon by the animal and severely injured.

dogs and cats are very perceptive, they need to be as many are in hostile environments so they pick up on subtle cues humans miss. this can make them seem intuitive and smart in a human sense but it is just their more aware of cues and are responding to those cues, they aren't thinking. if a dog saves a drowning person it does not weight the risks benefits it hasn't made any moral judgement or anything of the like.

Peter Hyatt said...

Regarding predictions including pedophilia:

http://dailycaller.com/2017/09/01/public-school-teachers-behind-violent-antifa-group/

Peter

Anonymous said...

Teachers have the right to express their personal views as much as students do. The fact the students choose mob mentality over learning starts in the home. Therefore removing the children from the public school system is no cure.

The religious right produce the same amount of mob mentality with their monkeys breast feeding from a wire cage and all their pseudo-studies, too. Typically, and thanks to modern technology, some are incarcerated for child porn.The Catholic church is notorious for such techniques as well.

Peter Hyatt said...

Anonymous said...
Teachers have the right to express their personal views as much as students do. The fact the students choose mob mentality over learning starts in the home. Therefore removing the children from the public school system is no cure.

The religious right produce the same amount of mob mentality with their monkeys breast feeding from a wire cage and all their pseudo-studies, too. Typically, and thanks to modern technology, some are incarcerated for child porn.The Catholic church is notorious for such techniques as well.
September 3, 2017 at 12:29 PM


When the child is removed, money is lost.

Money speaks loudly.

Your insult of religious people is plain; not passive aggressive. The indoctrination by teachers has no place in the school. As they are related to ANTIFA, they are, therefore, part of a terrorist organization that silences disagreement with violence.

relating the religious right to "monkeys" is something that I can understand why you'd post anonymously.

We in the crime world are kept busy by what your ideology produces.

Peter

Peter Hyatt said...

In Statement Analysis, we deal with human nature, regardless of where it leads. Analysts know that there is no such thing as an atheist within human nature. We are "religious beings", seeking truth, asking questions and in particular:

Each one of us who thinks wants to know what purpose there is in my life.

does my life have any meaning?
does suffering have meaning?

This question alone, asked throughout human history, proves the point of our nature:

is there life after death?

Having said this, I work with some who are not religious (agnostic with lots of questions).

They recognize that they were not born with the ideas that hold but inherited them within their society. They then look at where, in history, such ideas of justice (for example) come from and why they are comfortable (or not) with them.

This is why I point to comedian and Islamic critic Pat Condell videos on You Tube as an example. He is pithy, comical and oft times accurate. Then, he reveals his emotional conflict and illogic.

How does he do it?

First, he takes Judeo-Chrisitan ideology to show the immoral position of Islamists and he does a decent job of it. These are the very view points (ideologically) that he was born into, after many generations. To claim that these are just "common sense" can be proved to be, literally, a "racist" viewpoint. They are not common and not all areas in history have had them, or accepted them. Although racism itself has become an almost meaningless idea, I speak to the historical term.

He uses specific ideology to condemn another ideology. He does this well.

Then, he turns and condemns the very ideology he borrowed from to condemn.

It is ironic, but it is useful to not only see the hypocrisy, but to turn the lens of hypocrisy inward on us, and to deal with our own prejudices openly to get to the truth. We don't use a Catholic priest molestation or an atheist's rape to decide anything: we view the ideology behind the criminal behavior. Straw men arguments do not yield results.

***************************************************************************************************************

In a recent team analysis, several analysts expressed in the meeting or afterwards, just how refreshing it feels to be with professionals and to speak one's mind (and words) freely.

The learning of "iron sharpening iron" is exhilarating.

Sometimes they clear the bad guy and indict the good guy, but the means they use is just and accurate. Even when they feel tremendous emotional pull in one direction or another, by identifying it, they are minimizing its impact upon the analysis.

Peter

Peter Hyatt said...

Unknown animal lover: a few random thoughts:

A similar experiment was done in the former Soviet Union except with humans. I've addressed its results before.

dogs are the only creatures specifically designed to have significant response to human praise.

A leftist female attorney posted on FB (I must find it!) something about POTUS and how the animal kingdom is best to teach us how to parent, or something like that. It was intended to insult anyone who was not a leftist.

Someone responded by praising her for her response before describing how male lions simply walk up to cubs from another male and kill them.

Another posted a link to chimpanzees killing, seemingly, for sport, including ripping off the genitals of rivals.

The age of absurdity is upon us. I believe besides pedophilia, we will see a move towards "marriage" with animals and machines in the near future.

Before this, I expect more losses to freedom of speech and more losses to parental authority, as more people, products of the modern public school system, look to government as their religious savior.

This is why I frequently post about supporting teachers and law enforcement. Two maligned, under-paid and most difficult professions in need of both support and overhaul.

Peter

Ann said...

Anyone here want to look at this,I know Pete isn't a "Political"on this blog so this is for the readers. It's from obama to trump and it was AFTER this being sent to him that trump claimed wiretapping in his bldg Trump Tower. Someone posted this in reply to an article that a judge saying trump has no evidence of such thing.

The person making a reply also says

"Obama wrote this letter to Donald Trump without making it publicly known. It is a letter of encouragement and blessing to the new president. Nothing negative, only his blessing to the newly elected president.

That is a man of Honor.
What does Trump do, he accuses him of wiretapping Trump tower.

Would a man (Obama) write such a wonderful letter of encouragement to the next president if he wanted to do something as low as eavesdrop on the next president elect?"

Anyone,even a jerk,can write a 'nice letter'.


http://www.cnn.com/2017/09/03/politics/obama-trump-letter-inauguration-day/index.html

Unknown said...

Peter I think teachers have drank the kool-aid some time ago, while there are many good ones I place the education failures that are manifesting now on their and their political leaders shoulders. many are true believers.

Unknown said...

"Obama wrote this letter to Donald Trump without making it publicly known. It is a letter of encouragement and blessing to the new president. Nothing negative, only his blessing to the newly elected president.

That is a man of Honor.
What does Trump do, he accuses him of wiretapping Trump tower.

Would a man (Obama) write such a wonderful letter of encouragement to the next president if he wanted to do something as low as eavesdrop on the next president elect?"






the only known writing (not subject to being hidden from public by court order) attributed directly to obama was his poem about his uncle Frank and it was is a disturbing piece.

Anonymous said...

Peter, I didnt mean to say Christianity doesnt recognize special beings different than other humans. Just that Buddhism believes that some enlightened beings choose out of their generosity to return to earth after they have died to help other beings become enlightened. That is how they view Jesus. Its just interesting using Buddhism to argue with atheists bc Buddhism has stated beliefs that there are countless universes with other enlightened beings. I do not subscribe to much of Buddhist thinking, but at least it gets atheists to think beyond their basic arguments, or it COULD if they would stop being so self-righteous. jmo

Anonymous said...

Apparently you've never seen the real footage of studies in which monkey breast feeds from a wire formed teat.

tania cadogan said...

The age of absurdity is upon us. I believe besides pedophilia, we will see a move towards "marriage" with animals and machines in the near future.

The age of absurdity is already here Peter.

We see people having'relationships' with inanimate objects such as bridges, roller coasters,lifelike,lifesize anatomically correct dolls.
In some countries for religious reasons and culture we see people marrying animals to end a curse or bring good fortune.
Men having relationships with dolls because they cannot find a real woman for many reasons. Looks,inadequacy, disease,shortage of women due to cultural infanticide,mental health issues. Everyone, well,the vast majority has the need for love,companionship, to carry on their line, for most, they meet someone, for some they don't and the seek that which they are missing elsewhere. For a few it is a fear of rebuttal, intimacy from a real person, for others it is how they were raised and somewhere along the line things got a bit mixed up and fetishism are created and for a smaller minority that which they are attracted to is illegal and severely punished.
For some it is simply a lifestyle choice to not be with anyone or anything or the other end of the spectrum to be with everyone and everything,anything.
Will there come a point where society draws the line and becomes more conservative or are we on the slippery slope where anything and everything will go as everyone will have the rights to do whatever they like whenever they like, wherever they like with anyone/anything they like?
Will robots be created that will fulfil needs that may otherwise be illegal in order to allow someone their rights without breaking the law or causing harm to another living thing?
Is this too part of the cycle of humanity swinging from anything goes to extreme restriction and back again?

Hey Jude said...

Peter, thanks for posting the ‘Fate of Empires’ - it made for interesting reading. I liked the coincidence of the Roger Scruton BBC R4 ‘Point of View’ programme to which I posted the link, touching on similar themes, since which I have listened to several of his lectures on YouTube, and have found him to say much of further interest.



I am still thinking and can’t think, besides those you mentioned above, of what might be the next ‘virtue’ or next ‘sin’.

---

With regard to the attempts by a minority to make paedophilia respectable in the US, I predict they will not succeed. A similar organisation to NAMBLA existed in the UK during the seventies. When the intention became mainstream knowledge, public outrage ensued - I have linked the Wiki page below. One has to wonder at the organisations which accepted PIE as just another group seeking equal ‘rights’ and working against ‘discrimination’ under the ‘civil rights’ umbrella, despite the right they were seeking was to legalise sexual abuse of children.

Like NAMBLA, PIE’s literature was written in such a way as to make it appear a right, even a desire, of children to enter into ‘consensual’ sexual relationships with adults, rather than promote their less ‘convincing’ sounding ‘right’ to be predators. Similarly, when NAMBLA’s aims become more mainstream knowledge, parents, people in public office, and other responsibly minded people will move to extinguish their voice and demands from the public sphere.

Have such public groups existed earlier in the US? I find interesting that NAMBLA is similar to PIE in its brazen, yet also back-door effort to make paedophilia acceptable and respectable through aligning themselves with existing civil right causes and by using the confident language of entitlement and rights. It seems like a resurgence of PIE - another time, another place, the same intention to convince that they are advancing the rights of children, the same transparency.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paedophile_Information_Exchange

tania cadogan said...

The age of absurdity is upon us. I believe besides pedophilia, we will see a move towards "marriage" with animals and machines in the near future.

The age of absurdity is already here Peter.

We see people having'relationships' with inanimate objects such as bridges, roller coasters,lifelike,lifesize anatomically correct dolls.
In some countries for religious reasons and culture we see people marrying animals to end a curse or bring good fortune.
Men having relationships with dolls because they cannot find a real woman for many reasons. Looks,inadequacy, disease,shortage of women due to cultural infanticide,mental health issues. Everyone, well,the vast majority has the need for love,companionship, to carry on their line, for most, they meet someone, for some they don't and the seek that which they are missing elsewhere. For a few it is a fear of rebuttal, intimacy from a real person, for others it is how they were raised and somewhere along the line things got a bit mixed up and fetishism are created and for a smaller minority that which they are attracted to is illegal and severely punished.
For some it is simply a lifestyle choice to not be with anyone or anything or the other end of the spectrum to be with everyone and everything,anything.
Will there come a point where society draws the line and becomes more conservative or are we on the slippery slope where anything and everything will go as everyone will have the rights to do whatever they like whenever they like, wherever they like with anyone/anything they like?
Will robots be created that will fulfil needs that may otherwise be illegal in order to allow someone their rights without breaking the law or causing harm to another living thing?
Is this too part of the cycle of humanity swinging from anything goes to extreme restriction and back again?

Hey Jude said...

Happening in the U.K. -


http://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/whats-on/family-kids-news/john-lewis-scraps-boys-girls-13564901

John Lewis, a big department store, is scrapping Boys and Girls categories of clothing.

I bet they won't scrap all that ghastly pink for girls though, as if they all only ever want to wear pink, and play with pink toys.

----

A mummy blogger complained that Disney would not book her three year old son into a 'Princess for a Day' event - she cast him as a heartbroken victim of Disney discrimination who wears his Elsa dress every single day. The response from Disney was to apologise and open the event for boys who(se mothers) also want (them) to be a 'Princess for a Day' - sadly for him, his mother seems to want him to be a Princess every day. He is only three - so,it's fair to surmise she selected and bought him the dress, and encouraged him to wear it. In a family of boys, he is the youngest of three, that takes some conscious effort - as did drawing his attention to the event, which he also did not need to know about (if even he really did). There should be a right for children to not be manipulated into wearing and being photographed in Princess dresses, or any other manner, for the purposes of their mothers/parents generating fake outrage in blogs, and in the Daily Mail.

It's a trend here - the other day a mother and young son were outraged because the school dress code meant he could not start school wearing his hair long. Follow the rules or enroll him in a school where he can wear his hair long? Parents routinely use the DM to complain against their children being sent home for violation of school dress codes, as though it is the school at fault for having a uniform and rules about hair and jewellery. rather than the parent for not ensuring the child s dressed correctly to attend.

I can see more schools abandoning the hassle of rules with regard to uniform and boys hair length, the fashion for children to be 'transgender and to 'experiment' with gender fluidity' might make that an increasingly troublesome area. Some changes might be sensible, such as allowing high school boys to wear long shorts in summer term. One school had a protest of skirt-wearing boys complaining, via the Daily Mail, tthat hey were not allowed shorts, whilst girls had the option of trousers or more comfortable skirts. It's anyone's guess how permitting shorts might help prepare them for life in the workplace, most of which do not permit men to wear shorts, or skirts - well not if they are identifying as male. Still, if it made them more comfortable, and as childhood is meant to be enjoyable, it wouldn't have to be a big deal if they were to wear smart long shorts in summer - I don't think. I don't know how that worked out. It was strange to see boys wearing their sisters' school skirts - I doubt they would have done that twenty years ago.



Anonymous said...

Sorry my post at 5:33 was meant to be addressed to Tania.

Ann said...

I can't see EVERY school breaking the 'rules' of dress code. These ppl are coming out of the wood work and need serious therapy,it's child abuse where they can't have a say because their 'parents' can only have what they want/even in those stupid pedo countries where it is 'the norm' is saying a child has no right and saying to parents they have a 'right' to look at your child that way and you 'can't complain about it.

Pedos should be all gathered up and shipped to the sun.


Ann

tania cadogan said...

Hi Hey Jude. How will the little darlings cope when they finally get a job where a uniform is required?
Will mommy go running to the papers whining that their delightful offspring should be allowed to dress any way they want regardless of reasons for the necessary uniform or appropriate clothing?
Rules it seems should only apply to others.

Hi anonymous, in these days of sexual equality and equal rights, women can be as bad as men seeking men to abuse emotionally and even physically, using men for sex because they can, deliberately getting pregnant to get child support, especially if the man is rich and or famous,a meal ticket for life or a kiss and tell story and reality TV. Even now premiership soccer player with g history of cheating was arrested with a woman not his wife for drunk driving. His wife who is pregnant with #4 and was on vacation is rightly pissed. The woman is claiming they would likely have had sex had they not been pulled over and Wayne Rooney hadn't mentioned his wife or pregnancy. She is also on a sugar daddy website looking to financially dominate older men and looking for £6000 a month. Whore springs to mind.
She is likely being paid for her story, likely to end up on reality TV and his pregnant wife will likely stay with him again as he did the same thing during another pregnancy.
These days it seems morals are out the window and selling ones body is now socially acceptable if you fancy it up some

Unknown said...

obama's letter to Trump is insulting.

Anonymous said...

Oh Tania, please. Don't try to equate men with women as far as what men do. I've had countless male friends, and I have never heard a single one complain about being sexually dehumanized and objectified by a woman. And Please don't try to get me to pity men who are being used as a "sugar daddy". Cry me a river. I've seen all the games men play and quite frankly I am bored of all of them, even the most attractive fail to pique my interest. I am done with the emptiness I have felt from relationships with men, they tire me and bore me, their lack of emotional depth, their pettiness, their selfishness...I've seen it all and I'm done. If love knocks at my door, perhaps I will answer the call. Otherwise I find these men like mosquitoes. The same old tired bullshit. I'm not even sure I could ever love again, although I did once, and I suppose I will have to be content with that. A life of peace is the only thing that appeals to me away from the idiocy of most men. Being out of a 15 year relationship has brought me a feeling of relief. I doubt I would even go for love were it love, I'm too old for it now. I probably don't have the heart for it after it has been battered and shredded and stripped of any and all hope. To love would be an exhausting mistake I am sure. The time for youthful folly has come and gone.

Ann said...

Your experiences of 'male friends' who don't behave that way does not change the fact of what is true about men's behavior. If you had some who aren't like that then fine,but don't go using that as against facts. Who is pitting men here?

I believe you got your undies in a bunch and holding grudges and doing that you're keeping yourself in a mental 'prison' who like in one of those Andy Griffith episodes where the town's drunk goes in one of the cells and 'locks' himself up yet puts the key in hands reach so he can get out,but you're 'refusing' to let yourself back out.

To start wanting the peace you say you seek,you must start with yourself,stop focusing on the past,that's what it is - the past. Use your energy to do something positive for yourself instead.

Ann

Anonymous said...

Oh Ann, are you equating men with women? It's absurd. You're ridiculous if you think that men commonly feel used and dehumanized or objectified. Gimme a break k.

You are wrong. I don't hold grudges. No man I have been with is worth that type of mental effort. Would I be angry at a silly dog nipping at my heals or a pitball jumping up and down on me. No. I have not "locked" myself up; I date...I give each and every man a chance but there is nothing there...I can smell bullshit a mile a way, manipulation repulses me, love-bombing is so patronizing and I am immune to good looks. Ann, I am weary. Perhaps that is not acceptable in this New Age world we live in, but I am disenchanted with men. I have seen too much. I have experienced too much. I need something deeper. Or nothing at all. I have a good mind which can think very interesting thoughts on my own. I don't need some ridiculous man bothering me or trying to pitch some type of bullshit my way or putting his sweaty palms on me while I am trying to go about my business or taking me out for a night on the town only to end up trying to date rape me, as I skillfully trick him to let me out of his vehicle. Or pushing his giant ego on me. Or boring me with his silly demands, entitlements and expectations.
Even love I would probably turn away. What is the point? Love floats about the world causing it's wild and unreasonable passions, and in the end it amounts to nothing, we all return to mediocrity, comfort, unfulfilling mechanical sex. This is the way of life, Ann. WE don't need to like it, but self-help delusions only pours more salt in the wound. No we cannot change reality with our thoughts, positive affirmations, or even prayers, I am afraid. WE can only make the best of it.

Ann said...

I'm not ridiculous.

Hey Jude said...

Tania, I think they just want to be on the DM website - they could care less about their kids - if they did they'd at least have a mind for future employees googling them and finding they might fall under the category of potential troublemaker.

As for the mothers who are pushing their even pre-school kids towards identifying as transgender, in a sane world, social services would step in and protect the children. Probably they are too busy 'rehoming' gender confused kids if their parents are 'non supportive' and think they are just going through a phase, or suspect they have been influenced into rejecting their gender. It's insane how the transgender agenda is pushed and fashionable, and that there even is an agenda pushed at children - whatever it is for, I don't believe it's for the sake of the few genuinely gender confused kids, who are the only ones who might benefit, and that only might. It all has to be to the detriment of the NHS - I was listening to Roger Scruton, who predicts the NHS will collapse under the increasing demand for transgender services and reassignment surgery.

Anonymous said...

Ann, please give my condolences to Chip N Dale dancers. I'm sure they're crying themselves to sleep over being "objectified". Yes, it is ridiculous.

Anonymous said...

Hey Jude, Liberals love gender confusion for reasons I can't understand. Just yesterday in my facebook feed I was greeted by a bunch of happy liberals gushing about my facebook friend's brother who carried and gave birth to a baby. This bearded man used to be a woman who then turned into a man. The woman turned man then married a bio woman. As the story explained it, as the woman went through her tranformation of becoming a man, he never gave up a dream of being a
mother (!!!!????) So, instead of his bio female wife carrying and giving birth to a baby, the woman turned bearded man went to a fertility clinic and became impregnated and gave birth to a baby. The liberals were beside themselves with joy at the picture of this bearded man with a shaved head "chestfeading" a baby with what looked like DD-cup manboobs covered with hair. I said to my sister "I thought I was crazy, but these people are gone-down-the-road-bat-out-of-hell-insane." And they are, Hey Jude. Every last one of them.

Anonymous said...

This is the picture I was greeted with in my fb newsfeed. Except it had hordes of liberals gushing about how beautiful it was. Thank God I ate a light breakfast.

http://time.com/4475634/trans-man-pregnancy-evan/

Peter Hyatt said...

the great confessions of faith say:

'the light of nature itself teaches...' that there is a God. This is the language of reason. consider "reason" versus "unreasonable" in thought and see where the illogic comes from, the attacks, straw men arguments, etc.

This is why there is no such thing as an "atheist"; even they have a principle or final arbitrator of right and wrong, and as we see today, they will defend it, even as it changes, with violence.

With its shifting, it often destroys its own.

Peter

Peter Hyatt said...

In considering the Age of Absurdity increasing illogical and absurd cultural distinctive points, besides

pedophilia becoming socially acceptable and a "religious right" (Islam) and another "disability" ($) from emotional politicians,

continued war on Police

continued war on Masculinity to mirror the cartoonish ancient Roman depictions --

increased hostility towards Jews and Christians

I think we will see a "war on prisons" with a renewal of the 60's anthems to "tear down the walls" (sung by those with enough money to not live in areas where said walls are torn down and felonious "freedom fighters" are set upon communities. This would be the next step in the racist "restorative justice" which blames teachers for students' violence.

Increase in censorship : weakness must always be defended by coercion.

Sports have become infected with leftism, and the decrease in sportsmanship (empathy for defeated) is being exampled to children, praised by leftist ESPN: continued increase in domestic violence and assaults against women and elderly.

Abortion, no longer a dreadful decision but an "experience" to be praised, followed by Europe's example of unsustainable birth rates and failure of socialist economic systems (they've had a good run of more than 70 years success), which will hit the US (actually, this prediction is not fair; it is from the author above). Cheapened life becomes even cheaper in the eyes of the gen. pop.

Perhaps we will see this prediction sooner than later:

mandatory gender inclusion: professional sports.

It exists in leftist community sports (amateur) already where teams have "one mandatory female player at all times, lest penalized" (seriously; not humor here).

Peter

Anonymous said...

Go ahead and push the publish button on Hailey Dunn. Timing is critical. You will most likely get away with it now that Texas is focused on Harvey victims. Only one strange disappearance-which most knew would happen without any psychic powers-to divide and distract from the other crimes going on.

Other people are traiining insurance investigators, two.

Good luck instead of "I'll pray for you."

Hey Jude said...

Anon, I consider myself liberal, but not to the point of ridiculousness.

I find the image repulsive, and will not grow desensitised to such sights. It is unnatural and against the dignity of the baby to birthed and nursed by a man-woman. There is no such thing as 'chest-feeding' - males do not produce breast milk. I think it would have been kinder, and in the better interests of the baby (who I know would not then have existed) to have been birthed by a less selfish parent with a long-view to the child's potential identity issues, the desire of children to be like their friends, and to the family photo album. In their family set-up, the biologically female wife was the obvious candidate to give birth, but Evan wanted the experience, and to have his own biological child, which would have been denied him if the bio mother had given birth. Not impossible, they could have used one of Evan's eggs and IVF, but that would have been more complicated and expensive, whilst attracting about nil photo shoots and journalists.

As opinion goes, I think there should be much tighter definitions with regard to who can be legally regarded as transgender - I think it should and could be limited to those who have had full reassignment surgery. In order to be recognised as a transgender person, I think a trans man should not retain his female reproductive organs, and a trans woman should not retain her penis. I get that can sound crazy pronoun wise - at least it does when a 'transgender' person is known to have retained the organs of the birth gender. To do so seems less than a serious and full commitment towards belonging to the adopted gender - I have read and listened to many justifications, and fine, but therefore why insist on being termed transgender - there is nothing transgender about remaining the given gender and just claiming to be of the other gender - that's not a transition, it is a claim, Those who currently identify as transgender, or gender-fluid, yet see no need or desire for hormone replacement or surgery could, as previously, identify or be variously regarded as cross-dressers, or as transvestites, or as eccentric, or as tomboys or effeminate, asexual or androgynous - to my understanding, that is what they still variously are, even if they have been persuaded, or persuaded themselves otherwise. The old labels are unfashionable and unwelcome, while the term 'transgender' gives liberty to those who formerly chose to hide and/ or feel shame or inadequacy at the way they were or how they were able to express themselves. I think it has to be unhelpful for the genuine transgender minority to find themselves numbered amongst former drag-queens and transvestites, who are having a laugh at their expense - gender pretenders over against those for whom it is a serious, obsessive, psychological issue.. Also more than unhelpful that tomboy girls and effiminate boys are in some places manipulated into identifying as transgender. I know I over simplify.

All that said, there are countless screwed-up and selfish parents, and as many regrettable family photo albums. So long as no-one asks or expects me to celebrate or affirm such claims upon motherhood , which serve as simultaneous denials, as in the photograph, or to agree a five year old should be referred to a gender clinic, it can't be my concern, beyond holding an opinion. To my eyes, it is a mockery of male and female, of motherhood, and of fatherhood. It offends my senses, as an act of self-fulfilment pursued against the better interests of the child, and against human dignity. I wish them well, but I did not need to know about them or to see their baby picture, which is, anyway, not much about the baby.








Anonymous said...

Hey Jude, Well put. I am in full agreement with you, in fact I found the picture so disturbing that I almost wrote an angry comment underneath it on FB like "Do you realize how awful that baby will feel when he grows up and looks at that picture? How liberals can praise such a bizarre perversion of nature itself is beyond me. Why someone would change from female to male while lomging to be a mother, is, quite frankly, RETARDED. Or, at the very least, evidence of a severe personality disorder. Just the fact he went around telling people 'it just works best for our family if I, the man, carry the baby. You know what blows my mind more than anything? Where did he find a bio woman whio was willing to not experience giving birth (which is a very strong urge in most women) and willing to happily allow her husband to have the experience? Is that not the most shocking part of it? I mean if my sons father had tried to steal that wxperience from me (were he able to) I would have been repulsed & enraged. People can be so selfish, Hey Jude. There seems no limits to it.

Anonymous said...

There is nothing more beautiful and natural than a father breastfeeding his baby.

Hey Jude said...

Anon - I don't believe anyone can look at that photograph and honestly not feel revulsion at such a wanton perversion of nature, whether they hold any religious beliefs or not. So they all who comment that it is wonderful are being politely dishonest, at least,

---

This keeps coming to mind in relation to that and to the pushing of 'the transgender agenda' at children and young people:

'Woe to those who call evil good and good evil, who put darkness for light and light for darkness, who put bitter for sweet and sweet for bitter.'
(Isaiah 5:20 - out of context, but I don't care.)

---

I suppose that is a bit too strong. I don't mean transgender people are evil, I find the agenda is evil, in as far as those promoting it are allowed, encouraged, and enabled to mess with the minds of children and young people, most of whom would not have much considered their gender, beyond establishing in the earliest years - 'I am a girl', or 'I am a boy'. It's crazy, another pressure on today's kids - their lives already were so much more complicated than mine ever was at that age.



Anonymous said...

I saw something on FB: What does it mean with social introductions if someone refers their girlfriend as "the GF", like "Me and the GF went to a movie".? Is that an "OK" social intro? I forget the details of Peters article on it.

Anonymous said...
This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.
Peter Hyatt said...

Tania,

I recognize that we are in it and the absurdity is like nothing we've seen in the past 200 years, but...

here is what I don't know:

are we just beginning to go down this road?

I need a better historical understanding of how far have societies gone. I need more research.

I am very interested in predictions of "what's next?" in the world of absurdity.

It is so that we are becoming used to lots of societal Dhimmitude

ISIS fighters return to Europe to receive benefits and welcome.
Obama administration gives back room security tour of airports to Somalis
and lots of self destructive tendencies.

I also hear from LE who are forced by their superiors, who are forced by politicians, to stand down, walk away, justify, etc, due to fear of Islam, being called "racist" and "Islamophobe."

It is, perhaps, history's most formidable ideological enemy.

What my kids think is normal at airports is not normal; it is to highlight the power of Islam.

Islam completely changed how the West travels.

Sometimes I think about the twin towers. It was like the bully, Islam, knocked out our two front teeth.

Then to see Muslims attempt to build a mosque on it and have leftists defend it is just too much humiliation to bear and it is the type of provocation that may eventually awaken the West. If this happens, there will be civil war. History tells us of such coming violence. All the non jihad Muslims must side with Islam, and in history, this is what people do; they cling together.

The biggest folly of leftism is the biggest folly in criminal study: the failure to accept human nature.

Sir Winston Churchill and Theodore Roosevelt got it right.

Best to prevent it than to fight it.

Peter

Peter Hyatt said...

Each day, the number of deleted comments increases that complain about Islamophobia or politics. The same desire for silencing.

yet, the criminal ideology marches on with ludicrous defense:

https://www.gatestoneinstitute.org/10940/europe-islamic-future

I have strong ties and affections with Europe. It is more than my relatives, it is my respect and gratitude for huguenots, the early brilliant scholars at Oxford, Geneva, the influence of Martin Luther, the great music that has proven timeless over centuries, and so much else; far beyond the scope of a comment.

Perhaps it will be that one country, in particular, will fall soonest, and may awaken some of the great peoples of Europe who still exist and who are not represented by the elite or media.

It is sad to consider even one going under, but with some of them, it almost seems like a race.

If so, any predictions on which nation falls to Islam first?

Peter

Anonymous said...

Peter I think Sweden falls even before Belgium and that the next generation of wealth and success belongs to the former Soviet bloc nations, including Hungary and Poland. That article is really scary. No offense to you posting it I just feel sick to my stomach reading it. Thank you though

Unknown said...

the chaos we see happening around the world is the fruit of years of subversion of the Judeo-christian principals that built the incredible wealth and knowledge of the west.

there are people who have been fostering this and actively supporting the destruction of said Judeo-christian principals.

one of their strongest tools has been subverting language otherwise defined as political correctness.

they call themselves progressives or socialists because communism has a negative implication to many. but they are communists, but that too is just ruse, a tool for the leaders/puppet-masters to gain control and institute totalitarian rule.

it is always about power. the experiment that is the west is at a cross roads.

conservatism is still the majority in spite of what the media tries to portray. the larger problem is the progressives, socialists use public funds to attack conservatism as they have entrenched themselves in politics. both the elected level and bureaucratic level and have almost completely taken over secondary and post secondary education.

while the conservatives go to work, pay taxes and raise families the progressives use tax dollars (and in increasing amounts) to undermine all that is conservative. the chaos and the violence is planned.

greed and envy is what we have to look forward to if the progressives win. we have countless examples from our recent history, east germany,north korea, cuba and venezuela to name a few.

Unknown said...
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Unknown said...

Peter you say which one will fall first. maybe the first one has fallen. it is like an alcoholic, he isn't aware until he questions himself or tries to stop drinking.

France has fallen just no one wants to admit it. possibly sweden as well. we will know for sure when there is an attempt to stop the islamization. the lack of an attempt might be our answer.

rob said...

to Tania:
"John 10:16 And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold"
Some Christians see this verse to mean exactly what you think we don't believe.

The liberal is not happy being liberal. They are only happy if they are forcing their thoughts, ways, agendas on others, especially conservative Christians. Same with muslims, racists, fascists, etc. Their life goal is to exterminate the other side. The Christians life goal is to save the life of the other.
A day will come when all will be clear to both sides. I hope everyone is happy at that time.

Unknown said...

rob said...
to Tania:
"John 10:16 And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold"
Some Christians see this verse to mean exactly what you think we don't believe.

The liberal is not happy being liberal. They are only happy if they are forcing their thoughts, ways, agendas on others, especially conservative Christians. Same with muslims, racists, fascists, etc. Their life goal is to exterminate the other side. The Christians life goal is to save the life of the other.
A day will come when all will be clear to both sides. I hope everyone is happy at that time.


ROB, a Christian's life goal is to save his own soul.

Peter Hyatt said...

I should have made it more succinct:

Which country will be the first to acknowledge and cede over sovereign land?

Such a thing might be done to negotiate an end to terrorist attacks. With history as our guide, it would only embolden and increase the death toll from Islamic terrorism.

Sweden is my guess at this point.

They seem to be embracing absurdity and the distance between the elite and the people is wide. The generational attacks on masculinity may prove their ultimate undoing.

I have read very upsetting statements on various Swede news boards and such where the males openly refuse to protect the females because they have been demonized for decades.
It is very sad.

Peter

Unknown said...

europe had seceded moral ground in the 70's to the red brigade, black september, baader meinhof as well as the groups carlos the jackel was associated with. France, Italy and Germany in particular.

they put up a strong public front but behind the scenes they released captured terrorists under blackmail to these groups. you will have trouble finding this information in the news.

there is speculation that today Italy has been spared a direct attack due to their allowing mass migration. still that hasn't spared their citizens the crime and rape that has accompanied the migrants.

Alex said...

Germany first because of their powerful manufacturing based economy then Switzerland.

Alex

Unknown said...

http://www.frontpagemag.com/fpm/267764/shooting-messenger-sweden-bruce-bawer

rob said...

Unknown said...
ROB, a Christian's life goal is to save his own soul.

If you're a Christian, that should have already been taken care of.

Unknown said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Unknown said...

hopefully yes ROB, but it isn't as simple as calling yourself a Christian.