Friday, June 15, 2018

Dependent Words: Statement Analysis Lesson from Inspector General's Report

Here is a short lesson from Fall of 2016 on "Dependent" words in Statement Analysis. 

In the IG report, it stated that President Obama used a pseudo name to communicate to Hillary Clinton at her illegal server. 

A private server is used to bypass government oversight.  It was followed by:

1. Refusal to surrender physical evidence
2. Destruction of physical evidence, including smashing hard drives and phones
3. Deletion of more than 30,000 emails. 
4. Hostile actors accessing U.S. government classified information leading to ask if this was deliberately porous, particularly while her husband was being paid  by foreign actors. 

James Comey stated that Hillary did, in fact, use the server to conduct government business and it was accessed by hostile actors, but that Hillary did not "have intent" and "no reasonable prosector" would charge her. We learned that while James Comey was investigating Hillary Clinton's use of a private email to conduct government business, he himself was using a private email account while conducting government business.  It brings sense to the false claim of statute of "intent" and the unnecessary word, "reasonable." It also helps analysts understand what guilt projection indicates.  Being "extremely careless" rather than a violation is self protective for the subject. 

State employees at even entry level, social workers, therapists, doctors, nurses, and so on,  recognize that they would be terminated for sharing a client's name on a private email, and face possible legal consequence.  

The IG report is useful for deception detection training as we highlight a simple principle in use:  "Dependent Words in Analysis." 

In statement analysis, a "dependent word" is one that communicates appropriately when another word or topic is associated with it.  

We flag the dependent word for analysis. It sometimes reveals a great deal of information. 

For example, the word "just" is a dependent word.  It will not appropriately communicate a thought unless there is an attendant thought within the speaker's mind.  

We sometimes see "statement analysis confessions" by this word alone. 

"The car costs $15,000."  This is a straight forward, reliable sentence.  Now note a single word change that introduces a new, and missing topic:

"The car costs just $15,000

The word "just" is a dependent word.  It only communicates effectively when the dependent word is associated with at least one other word.  Here, "just" is used to compare the cost with at least one other cost, within the subject's mind. 

Patrol knows this dependent word:  "only"

"only had two drinks, officer" with the unnecessary dependent word "only" signaling that the subject is thinking of a number greater than two.  

Patrol:  "How many drinks have you had tonight, sir?"

Subject:  "Just two, officer."

The word "just" is a dependent word.  It must rely upon something else in order to be appropriately used in a sentence.  The subject is thinking, via comparison, of another number, greater than two.  It could be because he had more than two, or it could be that he is thinking of how he usually has more than two, but in every case:  it is the subject, himself, comparing "two" with a higher number. 

Officers, including those in rural areas, never know what will transpire during a traffic stop.  The elevation of hormonal response is indicated, even when the officer does not sense it. This takes long term toll on the immune system.  In some rural areas, the expectation of peaceful interaction, can actually increase the stress due to the unexpected escalation. 

Deceptive people often use a dependent word, inappropriately and reveal truth inadvertently. 

Negotiators and sales use dependent words routinely.  Some will use it incessantly.  We look to learn if, in context, it is appropriate (such as in sales) or inappropriately used in deception. 

Here is a question for you.  How many people are involved in this sentence"

"I have a brother."

Answer:  Two.  

We have the subject ("I") and we have a "brother", which is two.  The subject may have more, but that information would be outside this statement.  

Next, how many people are indicated in this sentence?  Note this sentence independently of the one above.  An example of this came up in a criminal investigation in which the subject was deceptive about the number of people involved:  

"I have another brother" 

Q. How many people are found within this statement?
A.   3 or more. 

We have "I", the subject, as one.

We have the brother as two. 

Then, using the dependent word, "another" we know that this word only works in a sentence when it is associated with at least one other brother, giving us three, or more.  Here, we say "more" because the number found, within this sentence, is not limited to three.  

Dependent words can even give confessions. 

" I parked my car at the gas station.  A car pulled up next to mine, and a man got out..."

This sentence tells us that there are two cars in the sentence.  The car belonging to the subject, and the car belonging to the man who pulled up next to her car, and got out. 

The problem?

This is not what she wrote. The analysts had already picked up linguistic indicators of not only substance abuse dependence but had considered that there was a 3rd party who entered the statement; a drug dealer.  

"I parked my car at the gas station.  Another car pulled up next to mine, and a man got out..." 

In the statement, the analysts explored the word "another" in context. 

Through analysis (examination by questioning) they knew that there was yet a third car within the statement, and going deeply into the statement, discerned that this third car was that likely of a drug dealer.  This changed the dynamics of the "event" that was reported.  The word "another" is a dependent word, meaning it does not work unless there is a noun missing that must be applied.  

It took a few minutes concentration and the open questioning of its use in the lesser context (immediate words and sentences around it) but it helped solve the case. 

Dependent words reveal withheld information, especially in advanced techniques and can not only reveal specifically withheld or surpassed information, but can show attendant crimes; those not alleged, but committed alongside the original allegation.  

The Illegal Private Server: Dependent Word 

The Federal Bureau of Investigation revealed Friday, September 23, 2016,  that  Barack Obama used a private email address and pseudonym to communicate with Democratic presidential nominee Hillary R. Clinton and her own private email account as early as June 2012. 

Barak Obama told the nation on March 7, 2015 that he did not know about Clinton’s private email while she was his secretary of state from Jan. 21, 2009 to Feb. 1, 2013.
Q: Mr. President, when did you first learn that Hillary Clinton used an email system outside the U.S. government for official business while she was secretary of state?
A:  Obama: The same time everybody else learned it through news reports.
The question is answered and it appears, on the surface, to be a straight forward response. Yet, did you flag the dependent word?

Let's look more deeply at the response with a change of language without the dependent word to see what happens.

Remember the "law of economy" in language. The need for additional words takes effort. The shortest sentence is best. 

Q: Mr. President, when did you first learn that Hillary Clinton used an email system outside the U.S. government for official business while she was secretary of state?
A:  Obama: The same time everyone learned it through news reports.
Here the wording is changed, and the dependent word, "else" is removed.  

A.  "The same time the public learned of it"  was also not said. Here is an even clearer way of answering the question.  

Remember:  the simplest answers are often the most reliable.  

A.  "I learned about it through media."  

This one would, psychologically, put the subject, himself, into the sentence with the pronoun "I", increasing the strength or commitment to the sentence. 

It is not what he said.

"The same time everybody else learned it through the news reports."

Although some may say that the President of the United States only learning this through the media without media first telling him strains credibility of which I reply:  this is statement analysis and we look for a reason for the opinion of deception.  For our reports, and for prosecution, we must be able to clearly articulate why we have concluded deception.  

The word "else" is a dependent word. It is unnecessarily added, meaning it violated the law of economy, took extra effort, leading us to know that it is very important to the subject.  Effort equals sensitivity.  The brain told the tongue to add this word to the sentence, and where to put it in the sentence, in less than a micro second in time.  

This rapid processing means:

The subject did not stop, pause and ask himself, "Should I answer with the word "else", or should I just say it without the word "else"?

Here the disruption of the editing process would have been severe, instead, we have a signal of proficiency within the answer.  This is a strong signal that the subject is well accomplished and life long in deception. 

Not only did the subject not use the pronoun "I", which would have placed himself within the answer, but we know his baseline is to use an overabundance of the pronoun "I" in his personal subjective dictionary. 

Note:  "else" is a dependent word that is not necessary to use here.  It is why we consider this 'coming close to an admission' of knowledge.  "Else" only works when it shows dependence upon a person who is being separated from "everybody" (that is, all) in his sentence. 

The question was, "When did you learn...?" in March of 2015.  

Analysis Conclusion:  Deception Indicated 

Most people are uncomfortable with a direct lie, and here we see that he removed 'self' from the sentence by avoiding using the pronoun "I", yet he still, unwittingly, identified himself, as one separate and distinct, unnecessarily, from "everyone else."

"Else" refers  first to himself, and although those who felt that it was not credible were correct, we seek to, within language, find the source of the deception.  

The stage is important.  This was a national (and international) audience. 

People often fear consequence of lying to the police and know that lying to federal police will carry even more consequence. This is why authority is vital for law enforcement to be respected:  it protects civilization. 

Think of the confidence in one's own ability to deceive to be willing to lie, with the consequences well known, to a federal agent.  

Now think of one who has the confidence in his own abilities to lie to Congress, under oath to God. We have a large list of examples from which to choose. 

Lastly, think of one who has the  confidence to attempt to deceive 
an audience of 300 million Americans.  

This is where we look for the trait of contempt. It should be used in the investigative interview.

For training in Deception Detection, visit Hyatt Analysis Services.

We offer seminars and the "Complete Statement Analysis Course" completed in your home or office, at your own pace. It comes with 12 months of e support. 

We also have a limited number of placements for advanced training, including live online monthly training. This is by approval only but allows the professional to immediately apply their training and work along with some of our best analysts and investigators from the United States, Canada and Western Europe.  


Unknown said...

"The same time everybody else learned it through the news reports."
He didn't say the same way. There is no comma between it and through.
While the public learned of it through news report, he says he learned of it as well. But he doesn't state how and by whom he was informed.

Anonymous said...

Peter Hyatt

We all have bias. "Bias training" exasperates it by both accusation & demand. The FBI only needs to rigorously enforce its standards. Rank & File do not need bias training. Investigators routinely own bias and debrief with superiors to protect the integrity of the investigation.

Foolsfeedonfolly said...

Thank you, Peter for breaking that down so logically. From your previous lessons, I knew to listen for "just", but "else" was a new one.

Also from your previous lessons:

Q: Mr. President, when did you first learn that Hillary Clinton used an email system outside the U.S. government for official business while she was secretary of state?

A: Obama: The same time everybody else learned it through news reports.

Not only did President Obama remove himself from answering a direct question and use a dependent word, but he answered a "When" question with "How". As you say Peter, he needed to explain how he learned of Ckinton's private server before the question was even asked. IMO, he was worried about being asked that, raising his stress level, and causing him to "rush" to answer it. He'd practiced his answer, so he didn't really hear the question.

Statement Analysis Blog said...

Fools, it is a good point. It went beyond the boundary of the question. Info outside the question should be elevated in importance due to the effort needed.


habundia said...

"The subject did not stop, pause and ask himself, "Should I answer with the word "else", or should I just say it without the word "else"?"

If the subject would have stopped and pauzed and thought. would have been sensitive too, wouldn't it?

"Lastly, think of one who has the confidence to attempt to deceive an audience of 300 million Americans."

Isn't that the reality of politics? Deceive millions because the truth would cause citizens to come into action and cause chaos and destruction.....if they all knew what really goes on behind close doors (secret email accounts/servers/sex rings etc.)

Anonymous said...

Q: Mr. President, when did you first learn that Hillary Clinton used an email system outside the U.S. government for official business while she was secretary of state?

A: Obama: The same time everybody else learned it through news reports.

Isnt he saying he learned about it (WHEN) the news media made it public?

Anonymous said...

Please do Rod Rosenstein next.

I have not begun to analyze his words,

But I detected the smile known as “duper’s delight”.

Anonymous said...

Emily Glass 911 call to report Lucas Hernandez missing. Transcript is at the bottom of the article:

Jonathan Hernandez call to report Glass' suicide. Transcript at the bottom:

Nadine Lumley said...

Oh goodness, I'm completely lost here. I don't understand what lie Obama told.