The Missouri Highway Patrol said Randy M. Garrison, 32, of Orrick, was taken into custody on two charges of first-degree abandonment of a child.
Garrison's children -- Roger Garrison, 3, and Ashton Garrison, 1, were found dead in the trailer on Dec. 10.
Hours after the fire, he told KMBC 9 News that he went to bed and woke up hearing the boys screaming. He said he saw the house on fire and tried to break into the boys' room from an outside wall, but couldn't.
According to court documents, first responders noticed differences in Randy Garrison's accounts of what happened on the night of the fire. Police said he told them he was injured after falling into the fire, but medics said he didn't have injuries consistent with that account.
Police said he also told them he initially overstated the size of the fire. They said that when he was asked why he wasn't able to get to the boys, he told them that he panicked and "didn't think."
Garrison also blamed the boys' mother at one point, saying she had tied a bungee cord over the door to their bedroom.
"The bedroom where the kids stayed was directly across the hall from the bathroom. And I, unfortunately, had seen Tammy do it once. She stuck a cord around the door to the bathroom door when it was naptime so they couldn't get out of the room," said neighbor and longtime family friend Sarah White.
White said she questions why Garrison wasn't able to get to the boys.
"I don't understand how it could have happened, because the doors -- especially here -- it was run down. It needed a lot of work and it wasn't very strong," White said. "Anybody could have easily kicked the door down."
Garrison was being held in the Ray County Jail on $100,000 bail.
The cause of the fire remains under investigation.